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AHRQ Research Studies
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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 199 Research Studies Displayed
Parikh MA, Fabiyi C, Mistry KB
AHRQ Author: Fabiyi C, Mistry KB
Factors associated with postprocedure opioid prescribing and persistent opioid use among opioid-naive patients: A nationally representative sample.
This study’s objective was to examine factors associated with postprocedure opioid receipt and persistent opioid use among opioid-naive patients in a nationally representative sample. The authors used panels 18-20 in MEPS between the years 2013 and 2015. They found that younger age, Western location, and a high-school degree were associated with higher odds of postprocedure opioid receipt. Patients who had procedures in an inpatient, outpatient, and dental setting; or musculoskeletal diagnoses and injuries were more likely to have postprocedure opioid receipt. Persistent opioid use was associated with Midwest and Northeast location, musculoskeletal diagnosis, public insurance, and positive depression screening.
Citation: Parikh MA, Fabiyi C, Mistry KB . Factors associated with postprocedure opioid prescribing and persistent opioid use among opioid-naive patients: A nationally representative sample. Ann Surg 2022 Dec 1;276(6):e706-e13. doi: 10.1097/sla.0000000000004630..
Keywords: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), Opioids, Medication, Practice Patterns, Pain
Carlile N, Fuller TE, Benneyan JC
Lessons learned in implementing a chronic opioid therapy management system.
This article describes a research collaborative of health service researchers, systems engineers, and clinicians that sought to improve processes for safer chronic opioid therapy management in an academic primary care center. The authors present implementation results and lessons learned along with an intervention toolkit that others may consider using within their organization. They designed, tested, and implemented two key safe opioid use process metrics-percent for patients with recent opioid treatment agreements and urine drug tests. Focus groups were conducted after the conclusion of the implementation. They found a general lack of knowledge regarding resources available to patients and prescribers in the primary care clinic. In addition, 69% of clinicians reported largely “inheriting” (rather than initiating) their chronic opioid therapy patients. They also tracked 68 patients over a 4-year period and found although process measures improved, full adherence was not achieved for the entire population. Barriers identified included team structure, the evolving opioid environment, and surveillance challenges, along with disruptions resulting from the 2019 novel coronavirus.
Citation: Carlile N, Fuller TE, Benneyan JC . Lessons learned in implementing a chronic opioid therapy management system. J Patient Saf 2022 Dec 1;18(8):e1142-e49. doi: 10.1097/pts.0000000000001039..
Keywords: Opioids, Medication, Pain, Chronic Conditions, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Practice Patterns
Bongiovanni T, Gan S, Finlayson E
Prolonged use of newly prescribed gabapentin after surgery.
This study investigated postoperative prolonged gabapentin use in adults 65 years and older. The authors merged a 20% sample of Medicare Carrier, MedPAR, and Outpatient Files with Part D for 2013-2018. They defined new postoperative gabapentin as fills for 7 days before surgery until 7 days after discharge. Overall, 3% of all eligible patients (n = 17,970) had a new prescription for gabapentin postsurgery. Out of those, the mean age was 73 years old and 62% were female. The most common surgeries that gabapentin was prescribed for was total knee (45%) and total hip (21%) replacements. Prolonged use occurred in 22% of patients, with women, non-White, those with concurrent prolonged opioid use, and patients having undergone emergency surgery more likely to have prolonged use.
Citation: Bongiovanni T, Gan S, Finlayson E . Prolonged use of newly prescribed gabapentin after surgery. J Am Geriatr Soc 2022 Dec;70(12):3560-69. doi: 10.1111/jgs.18005..
Keywords: Medication, Surgery, Pain, Elderly, Practice Patterns
Howard R, Gunaseelan V, Brummett C
New persistent opioid use after inguinal hernia repair.
The purpose of this retrospective cross-sectional study was to characterize the risk factors and incidence of new persistent use of opioids after inguinal hernia repair. During the study period of 208-2016, 59,795 patients met the inclusion criteria. The study found that 1.5% of patients continued filling their opioids prescriptions at least 3 months after their surgery. The greatest risk factor for developing new persistent opioid use after surgery was filling an opioid prescription in the 30 days before surgery. Other risk factors for new persistent opioid use after surgery included having a major postoperative complication, receiving a larger opioid prescription, having more comorbidities, and having certain mental health disorders or pain disorders.
Citation: Howard R, Gunaseelan V, Brummett C . New persistent opioid use after inguinal hernia repair. Ann Surg 2022 Nov 1;276(5):e577-e83. doi: 10.1097/sla.0000000000004560..
Keywords: Opioids, Surgery, Medication, Pain
Pritchard KT, Baillargeon J, Lee WC
Trends in the use of opioids vs nonpharmacologic treatments in adults with pain, 2011-2019.
This serial cross-sectional analysis on trends in the use of prescription opioids and nonpharmacologic alternatives in treating pain used MEPS to estimate the use of outpatient services by cancer-free adults with chronic or surgical pain from 2011 to 2019. A total of unweighted 46,420 respondents, 9643 (20.4% weighted) received surgery and 36,777 (79.6% weighted) did not. The prevalence of nonpharmacologic treatments increased in 2019 for both chronic and surgical pain cohorts, especially with exclusive use compared with 2011. Chiropractors and physical therapists were the most common licensed healthcare professionals used among the cohort who used nonpharmacologic treatment.
Citation: Pritchard KT, Baillargeon J, Lee WC . Trends in the use of opioids vs nonpharmacologic treatments in adults with pain, 2011-2019. JAMA Netw Open 2022 Nov;5(11):e2240612. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.40612..
Keywords: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), Opioids, Medication, Pain, Chronic Conditions, Treatments
Rogal SS, Chinman MJ, DeMonte W
Using intervention mapping to develop a novel pain self-management intervention for people with cirrhosis.
The purpose of this study was to design a pain self-management (PSM) intervention for patients with cirrhosis. The LEAP (Liver Education About Pain) intervention is a 12-week, modular intervention delivered by phone via individual and group sessions with a health coach. Participants described barriers to PSM behaviors, including the absence of simple, evidence-based interventions for pain for patients with cirrhosis, inadequate provider knowledge, time, and training, with lack of champions, funding, and communication. Patients described high motivation to treat pain using behavioral methods including meditation, prayer, and exercise. The intervention was designed to address barriers to PSM behaviors for patients with cirrhosis, using behavior change methods that address knowledge, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations.
Citation: Rogal SS, Chinman MJ, DeMonte W . Using intervention mapping to develop a novel pain self-management intervention for people with cirrhosis. Dig Dis Sci 2022 Nov;67(11):5063-78. doi: 10.1007/s10620-022-07380-4..
Keywords: Pain, Chronic Conditions, Patient Self-Management
Jackson P, Goodin BR, Long DL
The area deprivation index corresponds effectively with other measures of objective socioeconomic status in adults with chronic low back pain.
The purpose of this study was to compare the Area Deprivation Index (ADI) and other measures of socioeconomic status (SES), including income, education, and subjective social status (SSS), in their ability to predict pain severity/ interference in patients with chronic low back pain. The study found that pain severity/ interference correlated negatively with income and education and correlated positively with ADI. Criterion scores of the pain severity model indicate income performs best followed by ADI, with similar results with the pain interference model. The study concluded that when attempting to understand the impact of SES on chronic low back pain, neighborhood-level and individual-level factors should be considered.
Citation: Jackson P, Goodin BR, Long DL . The area deprivation index corresponds effectively with other measures of objective socioeconomic status in adults with chronic low back pain. J Nurs Meas 2022 Sep 1;30(3):433-48. doi: 10.1891/jnm-d-20-00126..
Keywords: Back Health and Pain, Pain, Chronic Conditions, Social Determinants of Health
Windgassen SS, Sutherland S, Finn MTM
Gender differences in the experience of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.
This study assessed gender differences in a debilitating urologic pain condition, interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). Findings indicated that women reported greater pain intensity and extent, but not significantly greater impairment from pain. The duration between time of pain symptom onset and time to diagnosis was significantly greater for women than men. Men emphasized needing more physiological treatment options whilst women emphasized needing more social and emotional support. While men reported feeling supported and involved in treatment decisions, women reported feeling dismissed and disbelieved.
Citation: Windgassen SS, Sutherland S, Finn MTM . Gender differences in the experience of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. Front Pain Res 2022 Aug 11;3:954967. doi: 10.3389/fpain.2022.954967..
Keywords: Pain, Sex Factors, Women
McDonagh MS, Morasco BJ, Wagner J
Cannabis-based products for chronic pain : a systematic review.
Researchers sought to evaluate the benefits and harms of cannabinoids for chronic pain. They found that oral, synthetic cannabis products with high THC-to-CBD ratios and sublingual, extracted cannabis products with comparable THC-to-CBD ratios may be associated with short-term improvements in chronic pain and increased risk for dizziness and sedation.
Citation: McDonagh MS, Morasco BJ, Wagner J . Cannabis-based products for chronic pain : a systematic review. Ann Intern Med 2022 Aug;175(8):1143-53. doi: 10.7326/m21-4520.
Keywords: Pain, Chronic Conditions, Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Treatments, Evidence-Based Practice
Curatolo M, Rundell SD, Gold LS
Long-term effectiveness of epidural steroid injections after new episodes of low back pain in older adults.
The purpose of this prospective study was to compare older adults undergoing epidural steroid injections (ESI) with patients not receiving ESI to test the hypotheses that those on ESI: 1) have worse outcomes before ESI, 2) have improved outcomes after ESI, and 3) have improved outcomes due to a specific ESI effect. The researchers evaluated patients 65 years of age or older from 3 United States health care systems who presented to primary care with new episodes of back pain. The three outcomes assessed were back and leg pain intensity, disability, and quality of life, all of which were evaluated at baseline, and then with 3-, 6-, 12- and 24- month follow-ups. The study found that in ESI patients, pain intensity, disability, and quality of life at baseline were significantly worse than in non-ESI patients. The study concluded that adults 65 and older who were treated with ESI have long-term improvement, but the improvement is not likely to be related to a specific effect of ESI, making epidural steroid injections unlikely to provide long-term benefits.
AHRQ-funded; HS019222; HS022972.
Citation: Curatolo M, Rundell SD, Gold LS . Long-term effectiveness of epidural steroid injections after new episodes of low back pain in older adults. Eur J Pain 2022 Aug;26(7):1469-80. doi: 10.1002/ejp.1975..
Keywords: Elderly, Back Health and Pain, Pain, Treatments
Khouja T, Zhou J, Gellad WF
Serious opioid-related adverse outcomes associated with opioids prescribed by dentists.
This study’s objective was to evaluate adverse outcomes and persistent opioid use (POU) after opioid prescriptions by dentists, based on whether opioids were overprescribed or within recommendations. A cross-sectional analysis of adults with dental visit and corresponding opioid prescription from 2011 to 2017 within a nationwide commercial claims database was conducted. As per CDC guidelines, opioid overprescribing was defined as >120 morphine milligram equivalents. Of 633,387 visits, 16.6% had POU and 2.6% experienced an adverse outcome. POU was higher when opioids were overprescribed with visits associated with mild pain and those with substance use disorders having the highest risk of both outcomes.
Citation: Khouja T, Zhou J, Gellad WF . Serious opioid-related adverse outcomes associated with opioids prescribed by dentists. Pain 2022 Aug 1;163(8):1571-80. doi: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000002545..
Keywords: Opioids, Dental and Oral Health, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Practice Patterns, Pain, Medication, Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Adverse Events
Kagarmanova A, Sparkman H, Laiteerapong N
Improving the management of chronic pain, opioid use, and opioid use disorder in older adults: study protocol for i-cope study.
This article describes a protocol for an upcoming study on the planned implementation and evaluation of I-COPE (Improving Chicago Older Adult Opioid and Pain Management through Patient-centered Clinical Decision Support and Project ECHO®) to improve care for older adults with chronic pain, opioid use, and opioid use disorder (OUD). The study will be implemented in 35 clinical sites across the metropolitan Chicago area for patients aged ≥ 65 with chronic pain, opioid use, or OUD who receive primary care at one of the clinics. I-COPE includes the integration of patient-reported data on symptoms and preferences, clinical decision support tools and shared decision making into routine primary care. Primary care providers will be trained on the tools through web-based videos and an optional Project ECHO® course, entitled "Pain Management and OUD in Older Adults." A framework called RE-AIM will be used to assess the I-COPE implementation. Outcomes considered effective include an increased variety of recommended pain treatments, decreased prescriptions of higher-risk pain treatments, and decreased patient pain scores. Outcomes will be evaluated at 6 and 12 months after implementation, and PCPs participating in Project ECHO® will be evaluated on changes in knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy using pre- and post-course surveys.
Citation: Kagarmanova A, Sparkman H, Laiteerapong N . Improving the management of chronic pain, opioid use, and opioid use disorder in older adults: study protocol for i-cope study. Trials 2022 Jul 27;23(1):602. doi: 10.1186/s13063-022-06537-w..
Keywords: Elderly, Pain, Chronic Conditions, Opioids, Medication, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Clinical Decision Support (CDS), Decision Making, Health Information Technology (HIT)
Salloum RG, Bilello L, Bian J
Study protocol for a type III hybrid effectiveness-implementation trial to evaluate scaling interoperable clinical decision support for patient-centered chronic pain management in primary care.
The objective of this 3-year project is to study the adaptation and implementation of an existing interoperable clinical decision support (CDS) tool for pain treatment shared decision making, with tailored implementation support, in new clinical settings in the OneFlorida Clinical Research Consortium. The evaluation will be organized by the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework, with an adaptation and tailoring of PainManager, an open source interoperable CDS tool. It is anticipated that this evaluation will establish the feasibility and obtain preliminary data in preparation for a multi-site pragmatic trial targeting the effectiveness of PainManager and tailored implementation support on shared decision making and patient-reported pain and physical function.
AHRQ-funded; R18 HS028584.
Citation: Salloum RG, Bilello L, Bian J . Study protocol for a type III hybrid effectiveness-implementation trial to evaluate scaling interoperable clinical decision support for patient-centered chronic pain management in primary care. Implement Sci 2022 Jul 15;17(1):44. doi: 10.1186/s13012-022-01217-4..
Keywords: Clinical Decision Support (CDS), Pain, Chronic Conditions, Primary Care, Health Information Technology (HIT), Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Patient-Centered Healthcare
Sisco-Taylor BL, Magel JS, McFadden M
Changes in pain catastrophizing and fear-avoidance beliefs as mediators of early physical therapy on disability and pain in acute low-back pain: a secondary analysis of a clinical trial.
In this study, the researchers hypothesized that reducing pain catastrophizing and fear-avoidance beliefs early would mediate early physical therapy’s effects on changes in disability and pain intensity. The Fear-Avoidance Model (FAM) postulates that pain catastrophizing and fear-avoidance beliefs are predictive for chronicity and disability. The research studied 204 clinical study trial patients who had been experiencing low-back pain for less than 16 days. At a baseline, 4 weeks, 3 months, and 1 year, the participants completed the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ work and physical activity scales), and outcomes (Oswestry Disability Index and Numeric Pain Rating Scale). The researchers found that early physical therapy led to improvements in pain and disability over 3 months, but not 1 year. In the single mediator model, 4-week reductions in pain catastrophizing mediated the effects of early PT on 3-month disability and pain intensity improvements, but the effects were small. The study concluded that at least partly through reducing patients’ catastrophizing, early physical therapy may improve disability and pain outcomes in patients with acute low-back pain.
Citation: Sisco-Taylor BL, Magel JS, McFadden M . Changes in pain catastrophizing and fear-avoidance beliefs as mediators of early physical therapy on disability and pain in acute low-back pain: a secondary analysis of a clinical trial. Pain Med 2022 May 30;23(6):1127-37. doi: 10.1093/pm/pnab292..
Keywords: Back Health and Pain, Pain, Rehabilitation
Kim HS, Muschong KM, Fishman IL KM, Fishman IL
Embedded emergency department physical therapy versus usual care for acute low back pain: a protocol for the NEED-PT randomised trial.
This protocol paper discusses a study that will evaluate outcomes of having an embedded physical therapist in the emergency department (ED) for patients experiencing acute low back pain. The desired outcome is lower patient-reported opioid use post-discharge. The study will enroll patients with acute low back pain at an urban academic ED in Chicago, Illinois. This case-control study will randomize patients to either the embedded physical therapy or the usual care. The authors will follow the patients to a primary endpoint of 3 months and compare a primary outcome of change in PROMIS-Pain Interference score and secondary outcomes of change in modified Oswestry Disability Index score and patient-reported opioid use.
Citation: Kim HS, Muschong KM, Fishman IL KM, Fishman IL . Embedded emergency department physical therapy versus usual care for acute low back pain: a protocol for the NEED-PT randomised trial. BMJ Open 2022 May 24;12(5):e061283. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2022-061283..
Keywords: Emergency Department, Back Health and Pain, Pain
Cheng BT, Paller AS, Griffith JW
Burden and characteristics of skin pain among children with atopic dermatitis.
The purpose of this study was to determine clinical features and quality-of-life (QOL) burden associated with atopic dermatitis (AD)- induced skin pain in children. The researchers conducted a national cross-sectional survey of child-parent dyads with AD. Questions were administered to the parent proxy for all participants, and children 8 years and older completed a similar questionnaire adapted for self-report. The researchers surveyed 240 children with AD and parent dyads, including 60 infants (1-4 years) and 180 children (5-17 years). This cohort included 200 (83%) with moderate to very severe disease. The study reported that 111 of 240 participants (46%) had parent-proxy reported skin pain, and 59 of 133 children (44%) aged 8 to 17 years had self-reported skin pain. Children self-reported slightly greater pain intensity than did their parents. Pain intensity was associated with clinical skin features of bleeding, weeping/ oozing, cracking, itch frequency, and itch severity. Quality of life scores were also analyzed, with results indicating that skin pain was a significant factor in lower quality of life scores. The researchers concluded that intensity of skin pain in children was associated with significant decreases in quality of life.
Citation: Cheng BT, Paller AS, Griffith JW . Burden and characteristics of skin pain among children with atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2022 Apr;10(4):1104-06.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2021.12.012..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Skin Conditions, Pain
Chen C, Lo-Ciganic WH, Winterstein AG
Concurrent use of prescription opioids and gabapentinoids in older adults.
This cross-sectional study investigated concurrent opioid-gabapentinoid use among older Medicare opioid users with chronic noncancer pain. The study found 464,732 eligible older beneficiaries aged 65 and older who filled ≥1 opioid prescription within 3 months after a randomly selected chronic noncancer pain diagnosis in a calendar year between 2011 and 2018. The prevalence of concurrent use increased from 17% in 2011 to 23.5% in 2013. The profile of concurrent users tended to be non-Black, low-income subsidy recipients, and Southern residents.
Citation: Chen C, Lo-Ciganic WH, Winterstein AG . Concurrent use of prescription opioids and gabapentinoids in older adults. Am J Prev Med 2022 Apr;62(4):519-28. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2021.08.024..
Keywords: Elderly, Medication, Opioids, Pain, Chronic Conditions
Chen C, Winterstein AG, Lo-Ciganic WH
Concurrent use of prescription gabapentinoids with opioids and risk for fall-related injury among older US Medicare beneficiaries with chronic noncancer pain: a population-based cohort study.
This study compared the risk of fall-related injury in two cohorts who used gabapentinoids concurrently with opioid use and those who used opioids only. The authors created 2 cohorts based on whether concurrent users initiated gabapentinoids on the day of opioid initiation (Cohort 1) or after opioid initiation (Cohort 2). Both cohorts were identified from a sample of older Medicare beneficiaries with chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP). Four concurrent users were matched up with 1 opioid-only user. They identified 6,733 concurrent users and 27,092 matched opioid-only users in Cohort 1 and 5,709 concurrent users and 22,388 matched opioid-only users in Cohort 2. Cohort 1’s incidence rate of fall-related injury was 24.5 per 100 person-users during follow-up and was 18.0 per 100-person-years during follow-up for Cohort 2. Concurrent users had had similar risk of fall-related injury as opioid-only users in Cohort 1 but had higher risk for fall-related injury than opioid-only users in Cohort 2.
Citation: Chen C, Winterstein AG, Lo-Ciganic WH . Concurrent use of prescription gabapentinoids with opioids and risk for fall-related injury among older US Medicare beneficiaries with chronic noncancer pain: a population-based cohort study. PLoS Med 2022 Mar;19(3):e1003921. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003921..
Keywords: Elderly, Opioids, Medication, Medication: Safety, Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Adverse Events, Falls, Patient Safety, Injuries and Wounds, Pain, Chronic Conditions
Encinosa W, Bernard D, Selden TM
AHRQ Author: Encinosa W, Bernard D, Selden TM
Opioid and non-opioid analgesic prescribing before and after the CDC's 2016 opioid guideline.
This study examined opioid and non-opioid prescribing before and after the issuing of CDC’s 2016 opioid guideline. The authors developed a theory of physician prescribing behavior under the CDC’s two-pronged incentive structure. They used MEPS survey data to empirically corroborate the theory that the regulations and guidelines have the intended effects of reducing opioid prescriptions for acute and chronic pain, as well as the predicted unintended effects-income effects cause regulations on acute pain treatment to increase chronic pain opioid prescriptions and the chronic pain treatment guidelines spillover to reduce opioids for acute pain. They also found that the guidelines work as intended in terms of the reduced usage, with chronic pain patients shifting to non-opioids and tapering off opioid doses.
Citation: Encinosa W, Bernard D, Selden TM . Opioid and non-opioid analgesic prescribing before and after the CDC's 2016 opioid guideline. Int J Health Econ Manag 2022 Mar;22(1):1-52. doi: 10.1007/s10754-021-09307-4..
Keywords: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), Opioids, Practice Patterns, Medication, Pain, Chronic Conditions
Wei YJ, Chen C, Lewis MO
Trajectories of prescription opioid dose and risk of opioid-related adverse events among older Medicare beneficiaries in the United States: a nested case-control study.
This study used a sample of older patients who are Medicare beneficiaries who were newly prescribed opioids to determine rates of 4 prescription opioid dose trajectories and the risk of opioid-related adverse events (ORAEs). A 5% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries from 2011 to 2018 was used to conduct a nested case-control study of patients age 65 and older who were newly diagnosed with chronic noncancer pain (CNCP). Among the cases and controls, 2,192 (70.6%) were women and mean age was 77.1 years. Four prescribed opioid trajectories before the incident ORAE diagnosis or matched date emerged: gradual dose discontinuation (from ≤3 to 0 daily morphine milligram equivalent (MME), 1,456 [23.5%]), gradual dose increase (from 0 to >3 daily MME, 1,878 [30.3%]), consistent low dose (between 3 and 5 daily MME, 1,510 [24.3%]), and consistent moderate dose (>20 daily MME, 1,362 [22.0%]). Less than 5% were prescribed a mean daily dose of ≥90 daily MME during 6 months before diagnosis or matched date. Patients with gradual dose discontinuation versus those with a consistent low or moderate dose, and increase dose were more likely to be 65 to 74 years, Midwest US residents, and receiving no low-income subsidy. Those with gradual dose increase and consistent moderate dose had a higher risk of ORAE, after adjustment for covariates.
Citation: Wei YJ, Chen C, Lewis MO . Trajectories of prescription opioid dose and risk of opioid-related adverse events among older Medicare beneficiaries in the United States: a nested case-control study. PLoS Med 2022 Mar;19(3):e1003947. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003947..
Keywords: Elderly, Opioids, Medication, Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Adverse Events, Risk, Chronic Conditions, Pain, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Medication: Safety, Patient Safety
Meisel ZF, Shofer F, Dolan A
AHRQ Author: Rhodes KV
A multicentered randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of pain treatment communication tools in emergency department patients with back or kidney stone pain.
The purpose of this trial was to compare the effectiveness of three approaches for communicating opioid risk during an emergency department visit for a common painful condition. Participants were adult patients with kidney stone or musculoskeletal back pain, randomly assigned to one of three risk communication strategies: a personalized probabilistic risk visual aid, a visual aid and video narrative, or general risk information. Findings showed that an emergency medicine communication tool incorporating probabilistic risk and patient narratives was more effective than general information in mitigating preferences for opioids in the treatment of pain but was not more effective with respect to opioid use or risk recall.
Citation: Meisel ZF, Shofer F, Dolan A . A multicentered randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of pain treatment communication tools in emergency department patients with back or kidney stone pain. Am J Public Health 2022 Feb;112(S1):S45-s55. doi: 10.2105/ajph.2021.306511..
Keywords: Pain, Emergency Department, Education: Patient and Caregiver, Opioids, Comparative Effectiveness, Clinician-Patient Communication, Communication
Joseph JM, Gori D, Curtin C
Gaps in standardized postoperative pain management quality measures: a systematic review.
Poor pain control in patients can lead to chronic pain, chronic opiate use or addiction, and patient suffering, making postoperative pain an important clinical issue. The researchers state that it is unclear whether measures for managing pain after surgery exist, warranting the study goal of assessment of the availability of postoperative pain management quality measures, including National Quality Forum-endorsed measures. In November 2019, the researchers conducted a systematic literature review using the National Quality Forum Quality Positioning System, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Indicators, and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Measures Inventory Tool databases, to identify quality measures for the period between March 11, 2015, and March 11, 2020. The review identified 19 pain management quality measures, 5 of which were endorsed by the National Quality Forum. Three of the non-endorsed measures were specific to postoperative pain, with none of the endorsed measures specific to post-operative pain. The study concluded that there is a need for published, endorsed, rigorous postoperative pain quality measures.
AHRQ-funded; HS024096; HS027434.
Citation: Joseph JM, Gori D, Curtin C . Gaps in standardized postoperative pain management quality measures: a systematic review. Surgery 2022 Feb;171(2):453-58. doi: 10.1016/j.surg.2021.08.004..
Keywords: Pain, Surgery, Quality Measures, Quality of Care, Practice Patterns
Hobson JM, Gilstrap SR, Owens MA
Intersectional HIV and chronic pain stigma: implications for mood, sleep, and pain severity.
This study discusses chronic pain stigma in persons with HIV (PWH) and the consequences for mental and physical health which can lead to poor chronic pain outcome. This cross-sectional study enrolled 91 PWH and chronic pain patients, with six participants disqualified. Participants provided blood to determine CD 4+ count and viral load. They also completed standardized self-report questionnaires that assessed their experiences of HIV and chronic pain stigma, as well as depressive symptoms, experiences of insomnia, and pain severity. Measures used in the questionnaires included the HIV Stigma Mechanisms Scale, the Internalized Stigma of Chronic Pain scale, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CED-S) Scale, the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and the Brief Pain Inventory Short-Form (BFI-SF). Participants were also questioned on opioid use. Results showed that for intersectional HIV and chronic pain stigma, 38% of participants were categorized as “high”, 28% were categorized as “moderate”, and 34% were categorized as “low”.
Citation: Hobson JM, Gilstrap SR, Owens MA . Intersectional HIV and chronic pain stigma: implications for mood, sleep, and pain severity. J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care 2022 Jan-Dec;21:23259582221077941. doi: 10.1177/23259582221077941..
Keywords: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Pain, Chronic Conditions, Social Stigma, Depression
White AEC, Hood-Medland EA, Kravitz RL
Visit linearity in primary care visits for patients with chronic pain on long-term opioid therapy.
Physicians and patients report frustration after primary care visits for chronic pain. The need to shift between multiple clinical topics to address competing demands during visits may contribute to this frustration. This study created a novel measure, "visit linearity," to assess visit organization and examined whether visits that required less shifting back and forth between topics were associated with better patient and physician visit experiences.
Citation: White AEC, Hood-Medland EA, Kravitz RL . Visit linearity in primary care visits for patients with chronic pain on long-term opioid therapy. J Gen Intern Med 2022 Jan;37(1):78-86. doi: 10.1007/s11606-021-06917-z..
Keywords: Opioids, Pain, Chronic Conditions, Primary Care, Medication
Agbalajobi OM, Gmelin T, Moon AM
Characteristics of opioid prescribing to outpatients with chronic liver diseases: a call for action.
This retrospective cohort study investigated opioid prescribing patterns among patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) at a single medical center. These patients (12,425) were followed for one year from October 2015 to September 2016. Nearly half (47%) were prescribed opioids over a one-year period, with 17% receiving high-risk prescriptions. Characteristics associated with high-risk opioid prescriptions included female gender, Medicaid insurance, cirrhosis and baseline chronic pain, depression, anxiety, substance use disorder, and Charlson comorbidity score. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was associated with decreased high-risk opioid prescriptions.
Citation: Agbalajobi OM, Gmelin T, Moon AM . Characteristics of opioid prescribing to outpatients with chronic liver diseases: a call for action. PLoS One 2021 Dec 17;16(12):e0261377. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0261377..
Keywords: Opioids, Medication, Practice Patterns, Pain, Chronic Conditions