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Research Studies is a compilation of published research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers.
Results1 to 25 of 261 Research Studies Displayed
Xie A, Koontz DW, Colantuoni EA
Application of participatory ergonomics to the dissemination of a quality improvement program for optimizing blood culture use.
The overuse of blood cultures in pediatric ICUs (PICUs) may lead to the unnecessary utilization of antibiotics and related resistance to antibiotics. The purpose of this study was to utilize a participatory ergonomics (PE) approach to disseminate a quality improvement (QI) program for optimizing blood culture use in PICUs and assess the dissemination process and its impact on blood culture reduction. The study found that overall, the participating sites were able to implement the program successfully and reduce their blood culture rates from 149.4 blood cultures per 1,000 patient-days/month before implementation to 100.5 blood cultures per 1,000 patient-days/month after implementation. Differences in the dissemination process, as well as in local interventions and implementation strategies, were observed across sites. Site-specific variations in the rates of blood cultures were weakly negatively associated with the number of preintervention interactions with the coordinating team but not associated with their experiences with the six domains of the dissemination process or their interventions.
AHRQ-funded; HS025642; HS025238.
Citation: Xie A, Koontz DW, Colantuoni EA . Application of participatory ergonomics to the dissemination of a quality improvement program for optimizing blood culture use. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf 2023 Oct; 49(10):529-38. doi: 10.1016/j.jcjq.2023.06.004..
Keywords: Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Children/Adolescents, Intensive Care Unit (ICU)
Karvonen KL, Anunwah E, Chambers Butcher BD
Structural racism operationalized via adverse social events in a single-center neonatal intensive care unit.
The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to assess structural racism in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) by establishing whether variations in adverse social events occur by racialized groups. The study included 3,290 infants hospitalized in a single center NICU in the Racial and Ethnic Justice in Outcomes in Neonatal Intensive Care (REJOICE) study, and researchers included demographics and adverse social events including infant urine toxicology screening, child protective services (CPS) referrals, behavioral contracts, and security emergency response calls were collected from electronic medical records. The study found that 6.2% of families experienced an adverse social event. Black families had a greater likelihood of having experienced a CPS referral and a urine toxicology screen. American Indian and Alaskan Native families also had a greater likelihood of experiencing CPS referrals and urine toxicology screens. Black families had a greater likelihood of experiencing behavioral contracts and security emergency response calls. Latinx families had a similar risk of adverse events, and Asian families were less likely to experience adverse events.
AHRQ-funded; HS028473; HS026383.
Citation: Karvonen KL, Anunwah E, Chambers Butcher BD . Structural racism operationalized via adverse social events in a single-center neonatal intensive care unit. J Pediatr 2023 Sep; 260:113499. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2023.113499..
Keywords: Racial and Ethnic Minorities, Newborns/Infants, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Critical Care
Klawetter S, Weikel B, Roybal K
Social determinants of health and parenting self-efficacy among mothers of preterm infants.
The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to utilize a social determinants of health (SDoH) framework to examine the associations between social and environmental factors and parenting self-efficacy (PSE) in mothers of preterm infants hospitalized in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The study found that the multiple linear regression model predicting the efficacy score including maternal race/ethnicity, age, insurance, employment status before giving birth, gestational age, depression, and having other children was significant. Significant predictors of PSE were race/ethnicity, having another child/children, and depression.
Citation: Klawetter S, Weikel B, Roybal K . Social determinants of health and parenting self-efficacy among mothers of preterm infants. J Soc Social Work Res 2023 Summer; 14(2):411-29. doi: 10.1086/716303..
Keywords: Social Determinants of Health, Newborns/Infants, Maternal Care, Intensive Care Unit (ICU)
Giuliano J, Krishna A, Napolitano N
Implementation of video laryngoscope-assisted coaching reduces adverse tracheal intubation-associated events in the PICU.
The purpose of this study was to assess the implementation of a video laryngoscope (VL) as a coaching device to decrease adverse tracheal intubation associated events (TIAEs). Between 2016 and 2020 the researchers implemented VLs as coaching devices with standardized coaching language. Laryngoscopists were encouraged to perform direct laryngoscopy with video images only available in real-time for experienced supervising clinician-coaches. The study found that a VL was used in 71% of 5,060 tracheal intubations. VL utilization increased from a baseline of 29.7% to an implementation phase level of 89.4%. VL utilization was related with lower TIAEs compared with standard laryngoscope (SL). VL utilization was related with lower severe TIAE rate, but not related with a reduction in severe hypoxemia. VL utilization was related with greater first attempt success. In the primary analysis after adjusting for site clustering, VL utilization was related with lower adverse TIAEs. In secondary analyses, VL utilization was not significantly related with severe TIAEs, severe hypoxemia, or first attempt success. After additional controlling for patient and provider characteristics, VL utilization was independently related with a lower TIAE rate.
Citation: Giuliano J, Krishna A, Napolitano N . Implementation of video laryngoscope-assisted coaching reduces adverse tracheal intubation-associated events in the PICU. Crit Care Med 2023 Jul; 51(7):936-47. doi: 10.1097/ccm.0000000000005847..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Adverse Events, Patient Safety
Lenz KB, Nishisaki A, Lindell RB
Peri-intubation adverse events in the critically ill child after hematopoietic cell transplant.
The goal of this study was to investigate whether adverse peri-intubation associated events occur at increased frequency in pediatric patients with hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) compared with non-HCT oncologic or other pediatric ICU (PICU) patients and therefore might contribute to increased mortality. This retrospective cohort study of critically ill children who underwent tracheal intubation (TI) was conducted between 2014 and 2019. Data was merged from local airway management quality databases and Virtual Pediatric Systems. Data was supplemented with a retrospective chart review for HCT-related data, including HCT indication, transplant-related comorbidity status, and patient condition at the time of TI procedure. There was a total of 1,931 children identified who underwent TI, of which 92 (4.8%) were post-HCT, while 319 (16.5%) had history of malignancy without HCT, and 1,520 (78.7%) had neither HCT nor malignancy. Children post-HCT were older, more often had respiratory failure, use of catecholamine infusions peri-intubation, and use of noninvasive ventilation prior to intubation. There was no difference in hemodynamic tracheal intubation-associated adverse events (TIAEs) or peri-intubation hypoxemia across three groups (HCT 16%, non-HCT with malignancy 10%, other 15%). The authors did not find an association between HCT status and the adverse TI outcome after adjusting for age, difficulty airway feature, provider type, device, apneic oxygenation use, and indication for intubation.
Citation: Lenz KB, Nishisaki A, Lindell RB . Peri-intubation adverse events in the critically ill child after hematopoietic cell transplant. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2023 Jul; 24(7):584-93. doi: 10.1097/pcc.0000000000003243..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Critical Care, Adverse Events
Mehta SD, Congdo M, Phillips CA
Opportunities to improve diagnosis in emergency transfers to the pediatric intensive care unit.
This study’s objective was to apply diagnostic process improvement frameworks to identify missed opportunities for improvement in diagnosis (MOID) in pediatric emergency transfers (ETs) and evaluate their association with outcomes. ET is defined as hospitalized patients who require ICU interventions within 1 hour of ICU transfer, which is a proximal measure of late recognition associated with increased mortality and length of stay (LOS). This single-center retrospective cohort study was conducted from January 2015 to June 2019. Primary outcome was the presence of missed opportunities for improvement in diagnosis (MOID), determined using SaferDx. MOID was identified in 37 of 129 ETs (29%). Cases with MOID differed in originating service, but not demographically, with failure to recognize urgency of an identified condition the most common diagnostic process opportunity. ET cases with MOID had higher odds of mortality and longer post-transfer LOS.
Citation: Mehta SD, Congdo M, Phillips CA . Opportunities to improve diagnosis in emergency transfers to the pediatric intensive care unit. J Hosp Med 2023 Jun; 18(6):509-18. doi: 10.1002/jhm.13103..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Diagnostic Safety and Quality, Intensive Care Unit (ICU)
Kannan S, Song Z
Changes in out-of-pocket costs for US hospital admissions between December and January every year.
Out-of-pocket costs for ICU care may be large at the beginning of the year due to high insurance deductibles that reset every year for US patients, and the expensive nature of ICU care. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to explore cost-sharing changes from December to January for ICU admissions and non -ICU admissions among adults with employer-sponsored insurance. Among aggregate ICU hospitalizations, total cost-sharing averaged $1079 in December and $1871 in January, a 73.4% increase. Among non-ICU hospitalizations, total cost-sharing averaged $1043 in December and $1683 in January, a 61.3% increase. These increases and differences between ICU and non-ICU hospitalizations were greater among patients with high deductible health plans (HDHPs). For patients with HDHPs requiring an ICU stay, cost-sharing averaged $3093 per hospitalization in January vs $1301 in December.
Citation: Kannan S, Song Z . Changes in out-of-pocket costs for US hospital admissions between December and January every year. JAMA Health Forum 2023 May 5; 4(5):e230784. doi: 10.1001/jamahealthforum.2023.0784..
Keywords: Healthcare Costs, Hospitals, Hospitalization, Intensive Care Unit (ICU)
Sikora A, Rafiei A, Rad MG
Pharmacophenotype identification of intensive care unit medications using unsupervised cluster analysis of the icurx common data model.
The Common Data Model for Intensive Care Unit (ICU) Medications (CDM-ICURx) may provide the needed infrastructure to clinicians and researchers to support artificial intelligence analysis of medication-related outcomes and healthcare costs. The purpose of this study was to identify novel patterns of medication clusters (termed 'pharmacophenotypes') correlated with ICU adverse events (e.g., fluid overload) and patient-centered outcomes (e.g., mortality). The researchers conducted a retrospective, observational cohort study of 991 critically ill adults with a total of 30,550 medication orders. To identify pharmacophenotypes, unsupervised machine learning analysis with automated feature learning was performed on the medication administration records of each patient during the first 24 hours of their stay in the intensive care unit. Five unique patient clusters and six unique pharmacophenotypes were identified. For patient outcomes, compared to patients in Clusters 1 and 3, patients in Cluster 5 had a significantly shorter duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU length of stay; for medications, Cluster 5 had a higher distribution of Pharmacophenotype 1 and a smaller distribution of Pharmacophenotype 2, compared to Clusters 1 and 3. For outcomes, patients in Cluster 2 had the highest severity of illness and greatest medication regimen complexity, but they also had the lowest overall mortality; for medications, Cluster 2 also had a higher distribution of Pharmacophenotype 6.
Citation: Sikora A, Rafiei A, Rad MG . Pharmacophenotype identification of intensive care unit medications using unsupervised cluster analysis of the icurx common data model. Crit Care 2023 May 2; 27(1):167. doi: 10.1186/s13054-023-04437-2..
Keywords: Medication, Intensive Care Unit (ICU)
Fraiman YS, Cheston CC, Morales D
A mixed methods study of perceptions of bias among neonatal intensive care unit staff.
This study’s goal was to characterize the perceptions of bias among neonatal intensive care units (NICU) staff. The authors distributed a survey to all staff (N = 245) in a single academic Level IV NICU, with a response of 178 respondents. More respondents agreed that bias had a greater impact on others vs. their own behaviors. They agreed that behaviors were influenced more by implicit than explicit biases and felt that other staff had implicit bias but that they have less bias than others. Healthcare staff provided ideas for strategies and approaches to mitigate the impact of bias. The authors propose the use of mixed methods studies as they are effective ways of understanding environment-specific perceptions of bias, and contextual assets and barriers when creating interventions to reduce bias and improve equity.
Citation: Fraiman YS, Cheston CC, Morales D . A mixed methods study of perceptions of bias among neonatal intensive care unit staff. Pediatr Res 2023 May; 93(6):1672-78. doi: 10.1038/s41390-022-02217-2..
Keywords: Newborns/Infants, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Provider: Health Personnel
Valley TS, Schutz A, Miller J
Hospital factors that influence ICU admission decision-making: a qualitative study of eight hospitals.
In order to understand factors influencing how intensive care unit (ICU) admission decisions are made, researchers conducted qualitative analysis of eight U.S. hospitals. Semi-structured, one-on-one interviews with 87 participants were supplemented by site visits and clinical observations. Four hospital-level factors were identified which influenced ICU admission decisionmaking. The researchers concluded that healthcare systems should evaluate use of ICU care and establish institutional patterns to ensure that ICU admission decisions are patient-centered as well as account for resources and hospital-specific constraints.
Citation: Valley TS, Schutz A, Miller J . Hospital factors that influence ICU admission decision-making: a qualitative study of eight hospitals. Intensive Care Med 2023 May; 49(5):505-16. doi: 10.1007/s00134-023-07031-w..
Keywords: Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Hospitals, Decision Making, Hospitalization
Herrick HM, O'Reilly M, Lee S
Providing Oxygen during Intubation in the NICU Trial (POINT): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial in the neonatal intensive care unit in the USA.
This article is a study protocol describing a pilot randomized controlled trial called Providing Oxygen during Intubation in the NICU Trial or POINT. This study’s objective will be to determine among infants ≥28 weeks' corrected gestational age (cGA) who undergo intubation in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) whether apnoeic oxygenation with a regular low-flow nasal cannula (NC), compared with standard of care (no additional respiratory support), reduces the magnitude of SpO(2) decline during intubation. This severe desaturation occurs in nearly half of neonatal intubations. This multicenter, prospective, unblinded, pilot randomized controlled trial recruited 120 infants, 10 in the run-in phase, and 110 in the randomization phase at two tertiary care hospitals in Pennsylvania. Patients will be randomized to 6 L NC 100% oxygen versus standard of care (no respiratory support) at time of intubation, with primary outcome the magnitude of oxygen desaturation during intubation. Secondary outcomes will include additional efficacy, safety, and feasibility outcomes.
Citation: Herrick HM, O'Reilly M, Lee S . Providing Oxygen during Intubation in the NICU Trial (POINT): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial in the neonatal intensive care unit in the USA. BMJ Open 2023 Apr 13; 13(4):e073400. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2023-073400..
Keywords: Newborns/Infants, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Critical Care
Anesi GL, Dres E, Chowdhury M
Among-hospital variation in ICU admission practices and associated outcomes for patients with acute respiratory failure.
Prior research has demonstrated a connection between hospital strain and ICU admission, and has suggested that ICU admission, compared to ward admission, could be advantageous for certain patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). The purpose of this study was to explore how strain-process-outcomes relationships in ARF patients may differ among hospitals and to identify hospital practice discrepancies that may explain such variation. The researchers analyzed high-acuity ARF patients who did not necessitate mechanical ventilation or vasopressors in the emergency department (ED) and were admitted to 27 US hospitals between 2013 and 2018. The researchers compared hospital strain-ICU admission relationships and hospital length of stay (LOS) and mortality for patients initially admitted to the ICU versus the ward. Additionally, they investigated hospital practices and assessed their associations with those processes and outcomes. The study found that substantial variation was observed among hospitals in ICU admission rates, hospital strain-ICU admission relationships, and the impact of ICU admission on hospital LOS and mortality. Overall, ED patients with ARF had a median hospital LOS that was 0.82 days shorter if initially admitted to the ICU rather than the ward. However, among the 27 hospitals this effect ranged from 5.85 days shorter to 4.38 days longer. In exploratory analyses, only a limited number of identified hospital practices—such as the presence of sepsis ED disposition guidelines and maximum ED patient capacity—were potentially linked to hospital strain-ICU admission relationships.
Citation: Anesi GL, Dres E, Chowdhury M . Among-hospital variation in ICU admission practices and associated outcomes for patients with acute respiratory failure. Ann Am Thorac Soc 2023 Mar; 20(3):406-13. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.202205-429OC.
Keywords: Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Respiratory Conditions, Hospital Discharge
Chiotos K, Blumenthal J, Boguniewicz J
Antibiotic indications and appropriateness in the pediatric intensive care unit: a 10-center point prevalence study.
The purpose of this study was to describe indications and appropriateness of antibiotic orders in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients. The study found that of 1462 patients admitted to participating PICUs, 58% had at least 1 antibiotic order, with 1277 antibiotic orders being reviewed. Common indications were empiric therapy for suspected bacterial infections without sepsis or septic shock, nonoperative prophylaxis, empiric therapy for sepsis or septic shock, community-acquired pneumonia, and post-operative prophylaxis. Appropriateness was evaluated for 985 orders for which an evidence-based heading for appropriateness could be created. Of these, 34% were categorized as inappropriate. Indications with the most orders classified as inappropriate were empiric therapy for suspected bacterial infection without sepsis or septic shock, sepsis or septic shock, CAP, ventilator-associated infections, and post-operative prophylaxis. The proportion of antibiotics classified as inappropriate differed across institutions.
Citation: Chiotos K, Blumenthal J, Boguniewicz J . Antibiotic indications and appropriateness in the pediatric intensive care unit: a 10-center point prevalence study. Clin Infect Dis 2023 Feb 8; 76(3):e1021-e30. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciac698..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Antibiotics, Medication, Antimicrobial Stewardship, Sepsis
Chiotos K, Marshall D, Kellom K
Mixed-methods process evaluation of a respiratory-culture diagnostic stewardship intervention.
The purpose of this study was to perform an evaluation of a diagnostic stewardship initiative for respiratory culture in the healthcare setting within a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in a tertiary-care center. The study found that the frequency of culture collection per day of service differed among attending physicians, ranging from 2.2 to 27 cultures per 100 days. A total of 14 interviews were conducted, and 87 clinicians (response rate: 47%) along with 77 nurses or respiratory therapists (response rate: 17%) participated in the survey. There was a variation in clinicians' stated practices concerning culture ordering, which was influenced by both their specialty and their perception of the respiratory culture's usefulness. Additionally, group "default" practices, fear, and hierarchy affected the decision to order cultures. Obstacles to standardization encompassed concerns about missing a diagnosis and the conflict between standardized practices and individual judgment.
Citation: Chiotos K, Marshall D, Kellom K . Mixed-methods process evaluation of a respiratory-culture diagnostic stewardship intervention. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2023 Feb; 44(2):191-99. doi: 10.1017/ice.2022.299..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Diagnostic Safety and Quality, Antibiotics, Medication, Antimicrobial Stewardship, Intensive Care Unit (ICU)
Gephart SM, Tolentino DA, Quinn MC
Neonatal intensive care workflow analysis informing NEC-Zero clinical decision support design.
The aim of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore the current clinical workflow and sociotechnical processes of clinicians for necrotizing enterocolitis risk awareness, timely discovery of symptoms, and treatment to guide decision support design. The researchers conducted 11 focus groups in two neonatal ICUs. The study found that workflow processes were different for nurses (who observe the signs of necrotizing enterocolitis and inform providers to order diagnostic tests and treatments) and providers (who receive notification of necrotizing enterocolitis concern and then decide what actions to take). The researchers reported that clinicians wanted a necrotizing enterocolitis-relevant dashboard with: 1) nutrition tracking and recognition of necrotizing enterocolitis; 2) features to support decision-making; 3) breast milk tracking and feeding clinical decision support; 4) tools for necrotizing enterocolitis surveillance and quality reporting; and 5) general electronic health records improvements to enhance user experience.
Citation: Gephart SM, Tolentino DA, Quinn MC . Neonatal intensive care workflow analysis informing NEC-Zero clinical decision support design. Comput Inform Nurs 2023 Feb; 41(2):94-101. doi: 10.1097/cin.0000000000000929..
Keywords: Newborns/Infants, Clinical Decision Support (CDS), Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Workflow, Health Information Technology (HIT)
Doherty JR, Schaefer A, Goodman DC
Texas hospital's perspectives about NICU performance measures: a mixed-methods study.
This exploratory mixed-methods study was conducted to determine Texas hospital leaders’ perspectives about neonatal intensive care (NICU) performance measures. First a survey was sent along with a copy of the Dartmouth Atlas of Neonatal Intensive Care to clinical and administrative leaders of 150 NICUs in Texas. The authors asked respondents to review the chapter that reported Texas-specific results and respond to a variety of open and closed-ended questions about the overall usefulness of the report. Secondly, they conducted semistructured qualitative interviews with a subset of survey respondents to better understand their perspectives. There was a 50% survey response rate. Respondents generally found the report to be interesting and useful, and 87.7% of all respondents reported being in favor of receiving future reports with their own hospital's data benchmarked against other anonymous NICU peers. All measures in the Atlas were considered favorably. The respondents also felt that a report with performance data would serve as a mechanism to drive change by identifying opportunities for improvement.
Citation: Doherty JR, Schaefer A, Goodman DC . Texas hospital's perspectives about NICU performance measures: a mixed-methods study. Qual Manag Health Care 2023 Jan-Mar;32(1):8-15. doi: 10.1097/qmh.0000000000000347..
Keywords: Newborns/Infants, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Critical Care, Provider Performance, Hospitals
Ramsden SC, Pergjika A, Janssen AC
A systematic review of the effectiveness and safety of droperidol for pediatric agitation in acute care settings.
This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness and safety of droperidol for the management of acute, severe agitation in children in acute care settings. The authors conclude that existing data indicate that droperidol is both effective and safe; however, data are limited by study designs that may introduce bias.
Citation: Ramsden SC, Pergjika A, Janssen AC . A systematic review of the effectiveness and safety of droperidol for pediatric agitation in acute care settings. Acad Emerg Med 2022 Dec;29(12):1466-74. doi: 10.1111/acem.14515..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Medication, Medication: Safety, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Patient Safety
Rosen A, Carter D, Applebaum JR
Critical care clinicians' experiences of patient safety during the COVID-19 pandemic.
The purpose of this mixed methods, multi-institutional study was to explore how the COVID-19 pandemic worsened preexisting issues of patient safety and created new challenges for patient safety within United States intensive care units (ICU.) The researchers conducted a national survey of critical care clinicians to assess their experiences related to patient safety during the pandemic. The survey instrument was distributed via email through the Society of Critical Care Medicine listserv, with results reported as percentages while free-text responses were analyzed and coded for themes. The study found that of the 355 survey responses received, 61% believed that conditions during the pandemic were more hazardous when compared with the period prior to the pandemic. When compared with providers who cared for mostly non-COVID-19 or no COVID-19 patients, the professionals who cared for primarily COVID-19 patients had an increased likelihood of perceiving that care was more hazardous. In the coded free-text responses, providers identified themes in patient safety risks including ventilator-related lung injury, medication and diagnostic errors, oversedation, oxygen device removal, and falls. The study concluded that higher levels of COVID-19 case burden were significantly related with perceptions of a less safe patient care environment by frontline ICU clinicians, and further identified specific hazards in intensive care units.
Citation: Rosen A, Carter D, Applebaum JR . Critical care clinicians' experiences of patient safety during the COVID-19 pandemic. J Patient Saf 2022 Dec 1;18(8):e1219-e25. doi: 10.1097/pts.0000000000001060..
Keywords: COVID-19, Patient Safety, Critical Care, Intensive Care Unit (ICU)
Cheung PC, Kramer MR, Kempker JA
Intermediate or intensive care unit admission across race and ethnicity.
This study’s aim was to assess the association between race and ethnicity and admission to intermediate (IMCUs) or intensive care units (ICUs) among hospitalized patients. Florida hospital discharge data from the State Inpatient Database was used to assess the relationship between race (White, Black, Other) and Hispanic ethnicity and IMCU or ICU admission. After controlling for demographics and comorbidities, the prevalence of IMCU or ICU admission was higher among non-Hispanic Blacks and non-Hispanic patients of other races compared with non-Hispanic Whites. The prevalence of IMCU or ICU use was lower among Hispanic Whites and Hispanics of other races compared with non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for other demographic characteristics and comorbidities.
Citation: Cheung PC, Kramer MR, Kempker JA . Intermediate or intensive care unit admission across race and ethnicity. South Med J 2022 Dec;115(12):913-18. doi: 10.14423/smj.0000000000001487..
Keywords: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Racial and Ethnic Minorities, Intensive Care Unit (ICU)
Levinson Z, Cantor J, Williams MV
The association of strained ICU capacity with hospital patient racial and ethnic composition and federal relief during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Investigators sought to identify the association between strained intensive care unit (ICU) capacity during the COVID-19 pandemic and hospital racial and ethnic patient composition, federal pandemic relief, and other hospital characteristics. They found that hospitals with large Black patient shares experienced greater strain during the pandemic. These hospitals received more federal relief; however, funding was not targeted overall toward hospitals with high ICU occupancy rates.
Citation: Levinson Z, Cantor J, Williams MV . The association of strained ICU capacity with hospital patient racial and ethnic composition and federal relief during the COVID-19 pandemic. Health Serv Res 2022 Dec;57(Suppl 2):279-90. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.14028..
Keywords: COVID-19, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Critical Care, Racial and Ethnic Minorities, Hospitals
Govindan S, O'Malley ME, Flanders SA
The MI-PICC Score: a risk-Prediction Model for PICC-associated Complications in the ICU.
The authors examined predictive factors for adverse events in critically ill patients with peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs). They found that PICC-related complications in the ICU were significantly associated with history of deep vein thrombosis, active diagnosis of cancer, presence of a second central venous catheter, blood transfusion through the PICC, and PICC dwell time.
Citation: Govindan S, O'Malley ME, Flanders SA . The MI-PICC Score: a risk-Prediction Model for PICC-associated Complications in the ICU. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2022 Nov 15;206(10):1286-89. doi: 10.1164/rccm.202204-0760LE..
Keywords: Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection (CAUTI), Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs), Critical Care, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Risk, Adverse Events
Kang D, Charlton P, Applebury DE
Utilizing eye tracking to assess electronic health record use by pharmacists in the intensive care unit.
The authors conducted a study using high-fidelity electronic health record (EHR)-based simulations with incorporated eye tracking to understand the workflow of critical care pharmacists within the EHR, with specific attention to the data elements most frequently viewed. They found that, in addition to medication information, laboratory data and clinical notes are key focuses of intensive care unit pharmacist review of patient records and that navigation to multiple screens is required in order to view these data with the EHR.
Citation: Kang D, Charlton P, Applebury DE . Utilizing eye tracking to assess electronic health record use by pharmacists in the intensive care unit. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2022 Nov 7;79(22):2018-25. doi: 10.1093/ajhp/zxac158..
Keywords: Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Health Information Technology (HIT), Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Critical Care, Provider: Pharmacist
Klawetter S, Cetin N, Ilea P
"All these people saved her life, but she needs me too": understanding and responding to parental mental health in the NICU.
The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the mental health needs of parents of infants in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and the challenges and solutions to meeting those needs. Through interviews with 15 parents and staff at a level IV NICU in the United States, the study found: the relationship between staff and parents filter protect from trauma and distress; information needs and mental health needs change over time, a lack of continuity of care affects response to mental health concerns, and NICU plays a critical role in addressing the mental health of parents. The researchers concluded that mental health support should be integrated into and customized to the entire NICU trajectory, with emphasis on parents living in rural locations and non-English-speaking parents.
Citation: Klawetter S, Cetin N, Ilea P . "All these people saved her life, but she needs me too": understanding and responding to parental mental health in the NICU. J Perinatol 2022 Nov;42(11):1496-503. doi: 10.1038/s41372-022-01426-1..
Keywords: Caregiving, Newborns/Infants, Critical Care, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Behavioral Health
Sullivan BA, Panda A, Wallman-Stokes A
Antibiotic spectrum index: a new tool comparing antibiotic use in three NICUs.
This study looked at a new tool called the antibiotic spectrum index (ASI) which quantifies antibiotic exposure by relative antimicrobial activity, adding information to exposure measured by days of therapy (DOT). This index was tested with very low-birth-weight infants (VLBW, <1500g) in 3 level-4 NICUs for 2 years at 2 sites and for 1 year at a third site. The authors calculated the ASI per antibiotic days and DOT per patient days for all admitted VLBW infants <32 weeks gestational age. The site with the highest DOT per patient days was found to have the lowest ASI per antibiotic days and the site with the highest mortality and infection rates were found to have the highest ASI per antibiotic days. Antibiotic utilization varied by center.
Citation: Sullivan BA, Panda A, Wallman-Stokes A . Antibiotic spectrum index: a new tool comparing antibiotic use in three NICUs. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2022 Nov;43(11):1553-57. doi: 10.1017/ice.2021.467..
Keywords: Antibiotics, Medication, Newborns/Infants, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Critical Care, Antimicrobial Stewardship
Krauss DM, Molefe A, Hung L
AHRQ Author: Henderson S, Miller M
Emergent themes from a quality improvement programme for CLABSI/CAUTI prevention in ICUs amid the COVID-19 pandemic.
In this study, researchers summarized themes for maintaining infection prevention activities learned from the implementation of a quality improvement (QI) program during the COVID-19 pandemic. They concluded that future shocks such as the pandemic must be anticipated, and the healthcare system must be resilient to the resulting disruptions to healthcare-associated infection prevention activities. Their study encountered four themes for successful maintenance of infection prevention activities during the current pandemic: the value of a pre-existing infection prevention infrastructure; a flexibility in approach; broad buy-in for maintaining QI programs; and the facilitation of idea-sharing.
AHRQ-authored; AHRQ-funded; 233201500016I.
Citation: Krauss DM, Molefe A, Hung L . Emergent themes from a quality improvement programme for CLABSI/CAUTI prevention in ICUs amid the COVID-19 pandemic. BMJ Open Qual 2022 Nov;11(4):e001926. doi: 10.1136/bmjoq-2022-001926..
Keywords: COVID-19, Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections (CLABSI), Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection (CAUTI), Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs), Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Critical Care, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Prevention, Urinary Tract Infection (UTI), Infectious Diseases