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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 501 Research Studies Displayed
Scott Scott, Kempe A, Bajaj L
"These are our kids": qualitative interviews with clinical leaders in general emergency departments on motivations, processes, and guidelines in pediatric sepsis care.
Researchers sought to identify barriers and facilitators to pediatric sepsis care in general emergency departments (EDs), including care processes, the role of guidelines, and incentivized metrics. They interviewed medical directors, nurse managers, and quality coordinators. They found that leaders in general EDs were motivated to provide high-quality pediatric sepsis care but disagreed on whether reportable metrics would drive improvements. Leaders universally sought direct support from their nearest children's hospitals and actionable guidelines.
Citation: Scott Scott, Kempe A, Bajaj L . "These are our kids": qualitative interviews with clinical leaders in general emergency departments on motivations, processes, and guidelines in pediatric sepsis care. Ann Emerg Med 2022 Oct;80(4):347-57. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2022.05.030..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Emergency Department, Sepsis, Guidelines, Evidence-Based Practice
Hoonakker PLT, Carayon P, Brown RL
A systematic review of the Consumer Emergency Care Satisfaction Scale (CECSS).
In this study, researchers systematically reviewed the literature on the Consumer Emergency Care Satisfaction Scale (CECSS) and examined its psychometric properties. Their systematic literature search resulted in 28 articles in which the CECSS was used, demonstrating that, from a psychometric perspective, the CECSS is a valid and reliable instrument. However, their study also showed that the CECSS has several weaknesses, and they made recommendations for its improvement.
Citation: Hoonakker PLT, Carayon P, Brown RL . A systematic review of the Consumer Emergency Care Satisfaction Scale (CECSS). J Nurs Care Qual 2022 Oct-Dec;37(4):349-55. doi: 10.1097/ncq.0000000000000636..
Keywords: Emergency Department, Patient Experience
Dutta S, McEvoy DS, Rubins DM
Clinical decision support improves blood culture collection before intravenous antibiotic administration in the emergency department.
This paper discusses the outcomes of using a clinical decision support (CDS) tool that was implemented in emergency departments (EDs) for sepsis patients to remind healthcare staff to take blood cultures before administration of intravenous (IV) antibiotics. The study compared timely blood culture collection outcomes prior to IV antibiotics for 54,538 adult ED patients 1 year before and after a CDS intervention implementation in the electronic health record. The baseline phase found that 46.1% had blood cultures prior to IV antibiotics, compared to 58.8% after the intervention. The CDS improved blood culture collection rates without increasing overutilization.
Citation: Dutta S, McEvoy DS, Rubins DM . Clinical decision support improves blood culture collection before intravenous antibiotic administration in the emergency department. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2022 Sep 12;29(10):1705-14. doi: 10.1093/jamia/ocac115..
Keywords: Clinical Decision Support (CDS), Health Information Technology (HIT), Antibiotics, Emergency Department, Medication, Sepsis
Odeh Couvertier V, Patterson Patterson, Zayas-Cabán G
Association between advanced image ordered in the emergency department on subsequent imaging for abdominal pain patients.
The purpose of this retrospective, observational study was to evaluate abdominal pain patients discharged from the ED to determine the association between advanced emergency department (ED) imaging on subsequent outpatient imaging and on revisits. The researchers utilized the electronic health records of Medicare patients who presented with a complaint of abdominal pain at a United States academic emergency department. The study found that participants who were not imaged at the ED had significantly higher adjusted odds of being imaged outside of the ED within 7, 14, and 28 days of being discharged, and had a significantly higher adjusted odds of returning to the study ED and visiting any ED within 30 days of being discharged. The study concluded that receiving abdominal imaging services in the ED was related with significantly lower imaging use after discharge.
Citation: Odeh Couvertier V, Patterson Patterson, Zayas-Cabán G . Association between advanced image ordered in the emergency department on subsequent imaging for abdominal pain patients. Acad Emerg Med 2022 Sep;29(9):1078-83. doi: 10.1111/acem.14541..
Keywords: Imaging, Emergency Department, Diagnostic Safety and Quality, Hospital Readmissions
Bell N, Lòpez-De Fede A, Cai B
Geographic proximity to primary care providers as a risk-assessment criterion for quality performance measures.
This retrospective cohort study examined geographic proximity to primary care providers as a risk-assessment criterion for quality performance measures for pediatric patients with either attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADD, ages 6-12) or asthma (MMA, ages 5-18) defined using Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) performance measures. The authors investigated differences in avoidable and potentially avoidable ED visits by the beneficiary's primary care medical home (PCMH) attribution type and in relation to differences in proximity to their primary care providers versus hospitals. There was a 2.4 percentage point reduction in risk of avoidable emergency department (ED) visits among children in the ADD cohort who attended a PCMH versus those who did not which increased to 3.9 to 7.2 percentage points as relative proximity to primary care providers versus hospitals improved. Children in the ADD and MMA cohorts who were enrolled in a PCMH but did not attend one for primary care services exhibited a 5.4 and 3.0 percentage point increase in avoidable ED visits compared to children who were unenrolled and did not attend medical homes, but these differences were only observed when geographic proximity to hospitals was more convenient than primary care providers.
Citation: Bell N, Lòpez-De Fede A, Cai B . Geographic proximity to primary care providers as a risk-assessment criterion for quality performance measures. PLoS One 2022 Sep 6;17(9):e0273805. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0273805..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Primary Care, Asthma, Medicaid, Emergency Department
Encinosa W, Lane K, Cornelio N
AHRQ Author: Encinosa W
How state surprise billing protections increased ED visits, 2007-2018: potential implications for the No Surprises Act.
This article discusses the 2022 No Surprises Act whose goal was to prevent patients from receiving unexpected emergency department (ED) out-of-network physician bills and restrict out-of-network co-payments to in-network co-payment levels. Similar state bans were examined to determine whether the large reduction in out-of-pocket payments under bans will have an unintended consequence of an increase in ED visits and spending. The authors examined 16 million nonelderly, fully funded, privately insured health maintenance organization (HMO) enrollees between 2007 and 2018 from 15 states with balance billing bans for HMO ED visits and 16 states without bans as the control group. They found that the bans reduced spending per visit by 14% but spurred a demand response with an increase of 3 percentage points in ED visits which wiped away the cost savings. The authors predict that the federal ban will result in $5.1 billion in savings but 3.5 million more ED visits at $4.2 billion in extra spending per year, largely negating expected savings.
AHRQ-authored; AHRQ-funded; HS027698.
Citation: Encinosa W, Lane K, Cornelio N . How state surprise billing protections increased ED visits, 2007-2018: potential implications for the No Surprises Act. Am J Manag Care 2022 Sep;28(9):e333-e38. doi: 10.37765/ajmc.2022.89226..
Keywords: Healthcare Costs, Emergency Department, Policy, Healthcare Utilization
Kilaru AS, Illenberger N, Meisel ZF
Incidence of timely outpatient follow-up care after emergency department encounters for acute heart failure.
The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to explore the incidence of outpatient follow-up care after presentation for acute heart failure at the emergency department (ED), and to present patient characteristics associated with receiving timely follow-up care. Using an administrative claims database from a United States commercial insurer, the researchers reviewed 52,732 adult patients with a mean age of 73.9 years discharged from the ED with the principal diagnosis of acute heart failure. The study found that within 30 days of the ED encounter, 23.2% of patients attended an outpatient clinic visit for heart failure, with 15.9% patients hospitalized before they could obtain an outpatient clinic visit. Patients that were younger, women, reporting non-Hispanic Black race, and had fewer previous clinic visits were less likely to obtain outpatient follow-up care. The study concluded that almost 20% of patients require hospitalization within 30 days of an ED for visit for heart failure, and few obtain timely outpatient follow-up after the initial visit.
Citation: Kilaru AS, Illenberger N, Meisel ZF . Incidence of timely outpatient follow-up care after emergency department encounters for acute heart failure. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2022 Sep;15(9):e009001. doi: 10.1161/circoutcomes.122.009001..
Keywords: Ambulatory Care and Surgery, Emergency Department, Heart Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions
Shankar LG, Habich M, Rosenman M
Mental health emergency department visits by children before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Investigators described pediatric mental health emergency department (ED) visit rates and visit characteristics before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. They found that mental health ED visit rates by children increased during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Citation: Shankar LG, Habich M, Rosenman M . Mental health emergency department visits by children before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Acad Pediatr 2022 Sep-Oct;22(7):1127-32. doi: 10.1016/j.acap.2022.05.022..
Keywords: COVID-19, Children/Adolescents, Emergency Department, Behavioral Health, Healthcare Utilization, Public Health
Cutler GJ, Bergmann KR, Doupnik SK
Pediatric mental health emergency department visits and access to Inpatient care: a crisis worsened by the COVID-19 pandemic.
The purpose of this study was to explore the author’s previous research findings on trends in pediatric emergency department (ED) visits for mental health (MH) vs non-mental health in light of more recent related data corresponding with the COVID-19 pandemic. The study found that recent research supports the dramatic increase in pediatric MH ED visits found in the author’s previous research and provides additional evidence that the increase has been driven by specific MH diagnoses. The researchers conclude that depressive disorders, self-harm behavior, and non-alcohol substance use disorders should be prioritized for the development of ED- and hospital-based strategies, and that EDs, hospitals, health systems, and the government urgently need to increase capacity for MH services and identify innovative solutions to improve access to high quality MH care for children.
Citation: Cutler GJ, Bergmann KR, Doupnik SK . Pediatric mental health emergency department visits and access to Inpatient care: a crisis worsened by the COVID-19 pandemic. Acad Pediatr 2022 Aug;22(6):889-91. doi: 10.1016/j.acap.2022.03.015..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, COVID-19, Behavioral Health, Emergency Department, Access to Care, Public Health, Inpatient Care
Pickens G, Smith MW, McDermott KW
Trends in treatment costs of U.S. emergency department visits.
In recent years, emergency department (ED) spending has been increasing more than in other areas of health care. Few studies have focused on changes in ED treatment costs. The purpose of this study was to analyze recent increases in emergency department treatment costs to highlight possibilities for reducing the growth of overall hospital costs. The researchers used data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) and applied Cost-to-Charge Ratios for ED Files to the HCUP Nationwide Emergency Department Sample for 2012 through 2019. The study found that ED treatment costs experienced a 5.4% annual growth rate, increasing from $54 billion to $88 billion, with higher treatment cost per visit responsible for 4.4 of those percentage points. The researchers concluded that the study provides valuable information for decision- and policy-makers by bringing attention to components of the healthcare delivery system with the highest increasing costs as well as trends in overall ED costs.
AHRQ-authored; AHRQ-funded; 290201800001C.
Citation: Pickens G, Smith MW, McDermott KW . Trends in treatment costs of U.S. emergency department visits. Am J Emerg Med 2022 Aug;58:89-94. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2022.05.035..
Keywords: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Healthcare Costs, Emergency Department
Hinson JS, Klein E, Smith A
Multisite implementation of a workflow-integrated machine learning system to optimize COVID-19 hospital admission decisions.
This study’s objective was to develop, implement, and evaluate an electronic health record (EHR) embedded clinical decision support (CDS) system that leveraged machine learning (ML) to estimate short-term risk for clinical deterioration in patients with or under investigation for COVID-19. The system translates model-generated risk for critical care needs within 24 hours and inpatient care needs within 72 hours into rapidly interpretable COVID-19 Deterioration Risk Levels made viewable within ED clinician workflow. A retrospective cohort of 21,452 ED patients who visited one of five ED study sites was used to derive ML models and were prospectively validated in 15,670 ED visits that occurred before (n = 4322) or after (n = 11,348) CDS implementation. Model performance and numerous patient-oriented outcomes including in-hospital mortality were measured across study periods. ML model performance was excellent under all conditions. AUC ranged from 0.85 to 0.91 for prediction of critical care needs and 0.80-0.90 for inpatient care needs. Total mortality was unchanged across study periods but was reduced among high-risk patients after the implementation.
Citation: Hinson JS, Klein E, Smith A . Multisite implementation of a workflow-integrated machine learning system to optimize COVID-19 hospital admission decisions. NPJ Digit Med 2022 Jul 16;5(1):94. doi: 10.1038/s41746-022-00646-1..
Keywords: COVID-19, Clinical Decision Support (CDS), Health Information Technology (HIT), Implementation, Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Emergency Department, Decision Making
Doty AM, Rising KL, Hsiao T
"Unfortunately, I don't have an answer for you": how resident physicians communicate diagnostic uncertainty to patients during emergency department discharge.
This study’s objective was to describe how emergency medicine resident physicians discuss diagnostic uncertainty during a simulated emergency department (ED) discharge discussion. Most residents in the simulation explained the evaluation revealed no cause for symptoms, noted concerning diagnoses that were excluded, and acknowledged both symptoms and patients’ feelings. However, 28% of residents did not discuss diagnostic uncertainty in any form. All residents were reassuring. Those who did discuss diagnostic uncertainty used explicit and implicit language with similar frequency.
Citation: Doty AM, Rising KL, Hsiao T . "Unfortunately, I don't have an answer for you": how resident physicians communicate diagnostic uncertainty to patients during emergency department discharge. Patient Educ Couns 2022 Jul;105(7):2053-57. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2021.12.002..
Keywords: Clinician-Patient Communication, Emergency Department, Communication, Diagnostic Safety and Quality
Hoffmann JA, Johnson JK, Pergjika A
Development of quality measures for pediatric agitation management in the emergency department.
This study’s objective was to develop quality measures for pediatric emergency department (ED) agitation management informed by multidisciplinary perspectives. A multidisciplinary panel was created to develop quality measures for pediatric ED agitation management through the modified Delphi method. The panelists included 36 physicians, nurses, social workers, security, child life specialists, hospital data analysts, and parents. Measures were ranked by panelists in importance and feasibility on a 9-point scale during 2 survey rounds, with a teleconference discussion between surveys. Consensus was defined at >75% of panelists ranking a quality measure greater or equal to 7 in importance and median feasibility of greater or equal to 4. Consensus was reached on 20 quality measures that incorporated multidisciplinary perspectives.
Citation: Hoffmann JA, Johnson JK, Pergjika A . Development of quality measures for pediatric agitation management in the emergency department. J Healthc Qual 2022 Jul-Aug;44(4):218-29. doi: 10.1097/jhq.0000000000000339..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Quality Measures, Quality Indicators (QIs), Quality of Care, Emergency Department
James TG, McKee MM, Miller MD
Emergency department utilization among deaf and hard-of-hearing patients: a retrospective chart review.
This retrospective study investigated the differences in emergency department (ED) utilization among deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) patients compared to non-DHH patients. A chart review was conducted using data from a large academic medical center in the southeastern United States. A total of 277 DHH ASL-users, 1000 DHH English speakers, and 1000 non-DHH English speakers were included. DHH ASL users and DHH English speakers had higher adjusted odds ratio of using the ED in the past 36 months than non-DHH English speakers. Abdominal pain was the most common principal diagnosis code for DHH English speakers.
Citation: James TG, McKee MM, Miller MD . Emergency department utilization among deaf and hard-of-hearing patients: a retrospective chart review. Disabil Health J 2022 Jul;15(3):101327. doi: 10.1016/j.dhjo.2022.101327..
Keywords: Emergency Department, Disabilities
Ward MJ, Shuster JL, Mohr NM
Implementation of telehealth for psychiatric care in VA emergency departments and urgent care clinics.
The purpose of this AHRQ-funded, mixed-methods study was to evaluate an emergency telehealth intervention in emergency department (ED) and urgent care clinic (UCC) settings within the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) in March 2020. The Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework was utilized to compare the 3 months preimplementation of the telehealth intervention (December 1, 2019 through February 29, 2020) with the 3 months postimplementation of the telehealth intervention (April 1, 2020 through June 30, 2020), and then assess sustainability through January 31, 2021. Qualitative data from surveys and semistructured interviews were conducted and analyze. The telemental health intervention was used in 83% (319) of unscheduled mental health consultations in the postimplementation phase, with no adverse trends in length of stay, 7-day revisits, or 30-day mortality. In the sustainability phase, use of the intervention was high with 82% (n = 1,010) of all unscheduled mental health consultations performed by telemental health. The study concluded that the use of unscheduled telemental health intervention was highly acceptable and sustainable in ED and UCC settings and did not impact the safety and efficacy of mental health consultations.
Citation: Ward MJ, Shuster JL, Mohr NM . Implementation of telehealth for psychiatric care in VA emergency departments and urgent care clinics. Telemed J E Health 2022 Jul;28(7):985-93. doi: 10.1089/tmj.2021.0263..
Keywords: COVID-19, Telehealth, Health Information Technology (HIT), Behavioral Health, Emergency Department, Veterans
Balamuth F, Scott HF, Weiss SL
Validation of the pediatric Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score and evaluation of Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock Definitions in the pediatric emergency department.
This study analyzed whether a measure used to quantity organ dysfunction, the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) in adults can also be used for critically ill children in an emergency department (ED) population. This retrospective cohort study took place in 9 US children’s hospitals included in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN registry from January 2012 to January 31, 2020. A score of 2 or more can indicate an infection. Almost 4 million ED visits were included, with 3.2% having a pSOFA score of 2 or more. The pSOFA score showed poor sensitivity as a screening tool for hospital mortality but children with a pSOfA score of 2 or less were at very low risk of death, with high specificity and negative predictive value.
Citation: Balamuth F, Scott HF, Weiss SL . Validation of the pediatric Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score and evaluation of Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock Definitions in the pediatric emergency department. JAMA Pediatr 2022 Jul;176(7):672-78. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2022.1301..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Sepsis, Emergency Department
Probst MA, Janke AT, Haimovich AD
Development of a novel emergency department quality measure to reduce very low-risk syncope hospitalizations.
The purpose of this study was to develop a new quality measure to apply with very low risk adult emergency department patients under 50 years of age and with no history of heart disease presenting with syncope. The study found that of the 3,292 patients meeting the study criteria, .46% suffered serious adverse events within 30 days after discharge. When the criteria were applied to the 2019 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) to assess its potential effect (assessing for hospital-level factors associated with hospitalization variation), of the 566,031 patients meeting the criteria, 2.7% were hospitalized. The researchers identified factors associated with increased hospitalization rates, which included a yearly ED volume of more than 80,000 and metropolitan teaching status. The study concluded that the novel syncope quality measure developed by the researchers can evaluate variation in low-value hospitalizations for unexplained syncope.
Citation: Probst MA, Janke AT, Haimovich AD . Development of a novel emergency department quality measure to reduce very low-risk syncope hospitalizations. Ann Emerg Med 2022 Jun;79(6):509-17. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2022.03.008..
Keywords: Emergency Department, Quality Measures, Hospitalization, Quality Indicators (QIs), Quality of Care
Kim HS, Muschong KM, Fishman IL KM, Fishman IL
Embedded emergency department physical therapy versus usual care for acute low back pain: a protocol for the NEED-PT randomised trial.
This protocol paper discusses a study that will evaluate outcomes of having an embedded physical therapist in the emergency department (ED) for patients experiencing acute low back pain. The desired outcome is lower patient-reported opioid use post-discharge. The study will enroll patients with acute low back pain at an urban academic ED in Chicago, Illinois. This case-control study will randomize patients to either the embedded physical therapy or the usual care. The authors will follow the patients to a primary endpoint of 3 months and compare a primary outcome of change in PROMIS-Pain Interference score and secondary outcomes of change in modified Oswestry Disability Index score and patient-reported opioid use.
Citation: Kim HS, Muschong KM, Fishman IL KM, Fishman IL . Embedded emergency department physical therapy versus usual care for acute low back pain: a protocol for the NEED-PT randomised trial. BMJ Open 2022 May 24;12(5):e061283. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2022-061283..
Keywords: Emergency Department, Back Health and Pain, Pain
Newgard CD, Lin A, Caughey AB
Falls in older adults requiring emergency services: mortality, use of healthcare resources, and prognostication to one year.
The purpose of this study was to assess the prognoses, healthcare use, transitions to skilled nursing or hospice, and mortality of older, community-living adults after a fall. The researchers conducted a secondary analysis of all adults in 7 Northwest U.S. counties greater than or equal to 65 years of age who had been transported to one of 51 hospitals after a fall. The study analyzed Medicare claims, state trauma registry data, state inpatient data, and death records for outcomes which included healthcare use, new claims for skilled nursing and hospice for one year, and mortality. The researchers found that in 3,159 older adults there were 147 deaths within 30 days and 665 deaths within one year, and the following predictors of mortality: respiratory diagnosis, serious brain injury, having a baseline disability, or a score of greater than or equal to 2 on the Charlson Comorbidity Index. The study concluded that in the year after experiencing a fall, community-living older adults who require ambulance transport to the hospital have increases in institutionalized living, the utilization of health care, and mortality.
Citation: Newgard CD, Lin A, Caughey AB . Falls in older adults requiring emergency services: mortality, use of healthcare resources, and prognostication to one year. West J Emerg Med 2022 May 14;23(3):375-85. doi: 10.5811/westjem.2021.11.54327..
Keywords: Elderly, Falls, Emergency Department, Mortality, Healthcare Utilization
Green RK, Shah MN, Clark LR
Comparing emergency department use among individuals with varying levels of cognitive impairment.
This study compared the frequency of emergency department (ED) use among a cohort of individuals with mild to well-defined cognitive impairment. This retrospective cohort study of English-speaking, community-dwelling individuals was conducted at four health system-based multidisciplinary clinics from 2014 to 2016. The authors obtained demographic and clinical data, including neuropsychological testing results, through chart review and linkage to electronic health record data. They characterized the frequency and quantity of ED use within one year (6 months before and after) of cognitive evaluation and compared ED use between the three groups using bivariate and multivariate approaches. Of the 779 eligible patients, 89 were diagnosed as cognitively intact, 372 as having mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 318 as having Alzheimer’s Disease and related dementias (ADRD). The proportion of subjects with any annual ED use did not significantly increase with greater cognitive impairment. The average number of ED visits also did not increase significantly with patients with MCI or ADRD having an elevated but non-significant risk of an ED visit compared to cognitively intact individuals.
Citation: Green RK, Shah MN, Clark LR . Comparing emergency department use among individuals with varying levels of cognitive impairment. BMC Geriatr 2022 May 2;22(1):382. doi: 10.1186/s12877-022-03093-5..
Keywords: Emergency Department, Neurological Disorders, Healthcare Utilization
Parast L, Burkhart Q, Bardach NS
Development and testing of an emergency department quality measure for pediatric suicidal ideation and self-harm.
The authors sought to develop and test a new quality measure assessing timeliness of follow-up mental health care for youth presenting to the emergency department (ED) with suicidal ideation or self-harm. Using Medicaid administrative data, they concluded that this new ED quality measure may be useful for monitoring and improving the quality of care for this vulnerable population; however, they recommended future work in order to establish the measure's predictive validity using more prevalent outcomes such as recurrence of suicidal ideation or deliberate self-harm.
Citation: Parast L, Burkhart Q, Bardach NS . Development and testing of an emergency department quality measure for pediatric suicidal ideation and self-harm. Acad Pediatr 2022 Apr;22(3s):S92-s99. doi: 10.1016/j.acap.2021.03.005..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Emergency Department, Behavioral Health, Quality Measures, Quality Indicators (QIs), Quality of Care
Bardach NS, Harder VS, McCulloch CE
Follow-up after asthma emergency department visits and its relationship with subsequent asthma-related utilization.
Researchers sought to assess the association between follow-up after an asthma-related emergency department (ED) visit and the likelihood of subsequent asthma-related ED utilization. Using data from California Medicaid, Vermont, and Massachusetts all-payer claims databases, they found a protective association between outpatient 14-day follow-up and asthma-related ED revisits. They suggested that this may reflect improved asthma control as providers follow the NHLBI guideline stepwise approach.
AHRQ-funded; HS025297; HS020518.
Citation: Bardach NS, Harder VS, McCulloch CE . Follow-up after asthma emergency department visits and its relationship with subsequent asthma-related utilization. Acad Pediatr 2022 Apr;22(3S):S125-S32. doi: 10.1016/j.acap.2021.10.015..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Asthma, Emergency Department, Respiratory Conditions, Healthcare Utilization
Capone CA, Emerson B, Sweberg T
Intubation practice and outcomes among pediatric emergency departments: a report from National Emergency Airway Registry for Children (NEAR4KIDS).
The purpose of this study was to describe Tracheal Intubation (TI) practice and outcomes in pediatric Emergency Departments as compared to those in intensive care units (ICUs) and use the resulting data to identify targets for quality improvement. The researchers analyzed consecutive TI encounters from pediatric EDs and ICUs in the National Emergency Airway Registry for Children (NEAR4KIDS) database from 2015 to 2018. The study found a total of 12,512 TIs in 51 pediatric/cardiac ICUs, and 756 TIs in 13 pediatric EDs and were reported. Proportion of TIs for shock (26% ED vs. 14% ICU), respiratory decompensation (52% vs. 64%), and neurologic deterioration (30% vs. 11%) also differed by location. Limited neck mobility was reported more often in the ED (16% vs. 6%). TIs in the ED were performed more often via video laryngoscopy (64% vs. 29%). Oxygen desaturation was less commonly reported in ED TIs (13.6%) than ICU TIs (17%). Among ED TIs, shock as an indication and limited mouth opening were independently associated with adverse TI-associated events (TIAEs). The study concluded that TI characteristics vary between pediatric EDs and ICUs, yet outcomes are similar.
Citation: Capone CA, Emerson B, Sweberg T . Intubation practice and outcomes among pediatric emergency departments: a report from National Emergency Airway Registry for Children (NEAR4KIDS). Acad Emerg Med 2022 Apr;29(4):406-14. doi: 10.1111/acem.14431..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Emergency Department, Registries, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Outcomes, Evidence-Based Practice, Critical Care, Intensive Care Unit (ICU)
Cabana MD, Robinson K, Plavin J
Partnering to improve pediatric asthma quality.
The purpose of this article was to explore the need for partnering between emergency departments (Eds) and primary care physicians (PCPs) to improve asthma quality measures, practice level improvements for both PCPs and EDs, and ultimately improve outcomes for children with asthma. Proper and timely management of asthma is thought to prevent ED visits, and the responsibility for addressing improvements in PCP performance should be shared by the PCP practices and health care payors and plans. The ability to measure the drivers of asthma-related visits to the ED may be outside of what a PCP practice can address, and so practices must be able to partner with health plans to successfully measure and develop system-wide interventions for quality and outcomes improvement. Although a child’s asthma may be managed in their PCP office, treatment of asthma issues often takes place in an ED setting or urgent care clinic that may be completely isolated from the patient’s PCP provider and system. Health plans can fill in the missing pieces to provide feedback on performance which can reduce ED visits, improve medication adherence and management, and provide actionable and timely data about hospital visits and discharge to PCP practices for quality improvements. Social determinants and comorbidities play a role in addressing ED visits for asthma. Health plan, public health systems, and provider coordination, integration, and partnerships are required to effectively address those issues and improve outcomes. The authors conclude that a systems approach and thoughtful partnerships across disciplines will be required beyond the PCP practice level to improve the outcomes of children with asthma.
Citation: Cabana MD, Robinson K, Plavin J . Partnering to improve pediatric asthma quality. Acad Pediatr 2022 Apr;22(3S):S73-S75. doi: 10.1016/j.acap.2021.06.013..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Asthma, Chronic Conditions, Emergency Department, Quality Measures, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care
Murray E, Roosevelt GE, Vogel JA
Screening for health-related social needs in the emergency department: adaptability and fidelity during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Researchers sought to evaluate a screening and referral program for health-related social needs (HRSN) in an emergency department. Using the Accountable Health Communities Screening Tool, they found that, during the COVID-19 pandemic, HRSN doubled, likely reflecting the economic impact of the pandemic.
Citation: Murray E, Roosevelt GE, Vogel JA . Screening for health-related social needs in the emergency department: adaptability and fidelity during the COVID-19 pandemic. Am J Emerg Med 2022 Apr;54:323.e1-23.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2021.09.071..
Keywords: COVID-19, Social Determinants of Health, Emergency Department, Screening, Public Health