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Research Studies is a compilation of published research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers.
Results1 to 25 of 548 Research Studies Displayed
Huff NR, Liu G, Chimowitz H
COVID-19 related negative emotions and emotional suppression are associated with greater risk perceptions among emergency nurses: a cross-sectional study.
The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between emergency nurses' emotional experiences in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and their perceptions of risk to both patients and themselves, and also to investigate the extent to which the use of suppression and reappraisal processes for emotion management were associated with these perceptions. Nurses' negative emotions in response to the pandemic were associated with greater perceptions of both personal and patient safety risks. Chronic tendencies to suppress emotions uniquely predicted higher perceptions of risk. The authors concluded that understanding the factors that influence perceptions of risk are important, since these perceptions can motivate behaviors that may impact patient safety adversely.
Citation: Huff NR, Liu G, Chimowitz H . COVID-19 related negative emotions and emotional suppression are associated with greater risk perceptions among emergency nurses: a cross-sectional study. Int J Nurs Stud Adv 2023 Dec; 5:100111. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnsa.2022.100111.
Keywords: COVID-19, Emergency Department, Provider: Nurse
Georgette N, Michelson K, Monuteaux M
A temperature- and age-adjusted shock index for emergency department identification of pediatric sepsis.
The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to derive a temperature- and age-adjusted mean shock index (TAMSI) for early identification of sepsis and septic shock in children with suspected infection. Researchers analyzed data on children who presented with suspected infection to a single emergency department over a 10-year period. Test characteristics for the TAMSI cutoffs were compared with those for the Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS) tachycardia or systolic hypotension cutoffs. The results showed that TAMSI achieved a similar negative likelihood ratio and improved positive likelihood ratio compared with PALS vital sign cutoffs for the prediction of septic shock, but did not improve on PALS for sepsis prediction among children with suspected infection.
Citation: Georgette N, Michelson K, Monuteaux M . A temperature- and age-adjusted shock index for emergency department identification of pediatric sepsis. Ann Emerg Med 2023 Oct; 82(4):494-502. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2023.03.026..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Emergency Department, Sepsis, Diagnostic Safety and Quality
Kilaru AS, Scheulen JJ, Harbertson CA
Boarding in US academic emergency departments during the COVID-19 pandemic.
The purpose of this retrospective study was to characterize changes in emergency department (ED) boarding among U.S. academic EDs across the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic. From January 2019 to December 2021 the researchers utilized a convenience sample of academic departments of emergency medicine to conduct an analysis of monthly data. The primary outcome was total boarding hours, and secondary outcomes included patient volume stratified by ED disposition. Of the 73 academic departments of emergency medicine contacted, 46.6% participated, a total of 43 individual EDs in 25 states. The study found that the adjusted mean total boarding hours per month were significantly lower during the second quarter of 2020 compared to the first quarter of 2019. Beginning in the second quarter of 2021, total boarding hours were significantly higher than pre-pandemic levels, peaking during the fourth quarter of 2021.
Citation: Kilaru AS, Scheulen JJ, Harbertson CA . Boarding in US academic emergency departments during the COVID-19 pandemic. Ann Emerg Med 2023 Sep; 82(3):247-54. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2022.12.004..
Keywords: COVID-19, Emergency Department, Public Health
Min SH, Song J, Evans L
Home healthcare patients with distinct psychological, cognitive, and behavioral symptom profiles and at-risk subgroup for hospitalization and emergency department visits using latent class analysis.
The purpose of this study was to explore subgroups of older adults receiving home healthcare services with similar psychological, cognitive, and behavioral symptom profiles and an at-risk subgroup for future hospitalization and emergency department visits as an indicator of underdiagnosis or undertreatment. The three-class model applied in the study consisted of Class 1: "Moderate psychological symptoms without behavioral issues," Class 2: "Severe psychological symptoms with behavioral issues," and Class 3: "Mild psychological symptoms without behavioral issues." The study found that Class 1 patients had 1.14 higher odds and Class 2 patients had 1.26 higher odds of being hospitalized or visiting emergency departments compared to Class 3. The researchers discovered significant differences in individual characteristics such as age, gender, race/ethnicity, and insurance.
Citation: Min SH, Song J, Evans L . Home healthcare patients with distinct psychological, cognitive, and behavioral symptom profiles and at-risk subgroup for hospitalization and emergency department visits using latent class analysis. Clin Nurs Res 2023 Sep; 32(7):1021-30. doi: 10.1177/10547738231183026..
Keywords: Home Healthcare, Emergency Department, Hospitalization, Elderly
McGarry BE, Mao Y, Nelson D
Hospital proximity and emergency department use among assisted living residents.
The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to explore the association between the distance of assisted living (AL) communities to the nearest hospital and AL residents' rates of emergency department (ED) utilization. The researchers hypothesized that when access to an ED is a shorter distance, AL-to-ED transfers are more common, especially for non-emergency conditions. The study found that among 540,944 resident-years from 16,514 AL communities, the median distance to the closest hospital was 2.5 miles. After statistical adjustment, a doubling of distance to the closest hospital was related with 43.5 fewer ED treat-and-release visits per 1000 resident years and no significant difference in the rate of ED visits resulting in an inpatient admission. Among ED treat-and-release visits, a doubling of distance was related with a 3.0% decrease in visits classified as nonemergent, and a 1.6% decrease in visits classified as emergent, not primary care treatable.
Citation: McGarry BE, Mao Y, Nelson D . Hospital proximity and emergency department use among assisted living residents. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2023 Sep; 24(9):1349-55.e.5. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2023.05.002..
Keywords: Emergency Department, Elderly, Long-Term Care, Medicare, Hospitals
Smulowitz PB, Weinreb G, McWilliams JM
Association of functional status, cognition, social support, and geriatric syndrome with admission from the emergency department.
The objective of this cohort study was to determine the extent to which patient-level factors such as such as functional status, cognitive status, social supports, and geriatric syndromes are associated with rates of hospital admission following an emergency department (ED) visit. Survey data collected from participants or their proxies enrolled in the Health and Retirement Study were linked to Medicare fee-for-service claims data. The results suggested that key patient-level characteristics were associated with the decision to admit older patients to the hospital from the ED. The authors concluded that these factors will be critical to consider when devising strategies to reduce low-value admissions from the ED among older adult patients.
Citation: Smulowitz PB, Weinreb G, McWilliams JM . Association of functional status, cognition, social support, and geriatric syndrome with admission from the emergency department. JAMA Intern Med 2023 Aug; 183(8):784-92. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2023.2149..
Keywords: Elderly, Emergency Department
Nguyen JK, P P
Comparison of survival outcomes among older adults with major trauma after trauma center versus non-trauma center care in the United States.
This study’s objective was to compare level 1 and 2 trauma centers with similarly sized non-trauma centers on survival after major trauma among older adults. The authors used claims of 100% of 2012-2017 Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries who received hospital care after major trauma. They assessed the roles of prehospital care, hospital quality, and volume. Thirty-day mortality was higher overall at level 1 versus non-trauma centers by 2.2 percentage points (pp). Thirty-day mortality was higher at level 1 versus non-trauma centers by 2.3 pp for falls and 2.3 pp for motor vehicle crashes. Outcomes were similar at level 1 and 2 trauma centers. The difference was not explained by hospital quality and volume. There were also no statistical differences in the ambulance-transported group, after adjusting for prehospital variables.
Citation: Nguyen JK, P P . Comparison of survival outcomes among older adults with major trauma after trauma center versus non-trauma center care in the United States. Health Serv Res 2023 Aug; 58(4):817-27. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.14148..
Keywords: Elderly, Trauma, Outcomes, Injuries and Wounds, Emergency Department, Hospitals
Krishnan JA, Margellos-Anast H, Kumar R
Coordinated Health Care Interventions for Childhood Asthma Gaps in Outcomes (CHICAGO) plan.
The purpose of this clinical trial was to compare an emergency-department- (ED) only intervention and home visits by community health workers for 6 months (ED-plus-home) and enhanced usual care (UC). The study enrolled children aged 5 to 11 years with uncontrolled asthma. The primary outcomes were change over 6 months in the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Asthma Impact Scale score in children and Satisfaction with Participation in Social Roles score in caregivers. The secondary outcomes included guideline-recommended ED discharge care and self-management. The study found that of the 373 children recruited, only 63% completed the 6-month follow-up visit. Differences in Asthma Impact Scores or caregivers' Satisfaction with Participation in Social Roles scores were not significant. However, in the intervention groups guideline-recommended ED discharge care improved significantly versus in the UC group, and self-management behaviors were significantly improved in the ED-plus-home group versus in the ED-only and UC groups.
Citation: Krishnan JA, Margellos-Anast H, Kumar R . Coordinated Health Care Interventions for Childhood Asthma Gaps in Outcomes (CHICAGO) plan. J Allergy Clin Immunol Glob 2023 Aug; 2(3). doi: 10.1016/j.jacig.2023.100100..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Asthma, Respiratory Conditions, Outcomes, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Evidence-Based Practice, Emergency Department, Clinical Decision Support (CDS), Health Information Technology (HIT), Racial and Ethnic Minorities
Brajcich BC, Johnson JK, Holl JL
Evaluation of emergency department treat-and-release encounters after major gastrointestinal surgery.
The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of, reasons for, and predictors of emergency department treat-and-release encounters after gastrointestinal cancer operations. The researchers identified patients who underwent elective colorectal, esophageal, gastric, hepatobiliary, pancreatic, or small intestinal operations for cancer from the 2015-2017 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient and State Emergency Department Databases for New York, Maryland, and Florida. The study found that among 51,527 patients at 406 hospitals, 7.9% had an ED treat-and-release encounter, and 10.8% had an ED encounter with readmission. In total, 40.7% of ED encounters were treat-and-release encounters. 12% of ED treat-and-release encounters were for pain, 11.7% for device/ostomy complaints, and 11.4% were for wound complaints (11.4%). ED treat-and-release encounters predictors included non-Hispanic Black race/ethnicity and Medicare or Medicaid coverage.
Citation: Brajcich BC, Johnson JK, Holl JL . Evaluation of emergency department treat-and-release encounters after major gastrointestinal surgery. J Surg Oncol 2023 Aug; 128(2):402-08. doi: 10.1002/jso.27292..
Keywords: Emergency Department, Digestive Disease and Health, Surgery, Hospital Readmissions
Kim HS, Strickland KJ, Seitz AL
Patient perspectives on seeking emergency care for acute low back pain and access to physical therapy in the emergency department.
This study’s purpose was to explore patient perspectives on visiting the emergency department (ED) for low back pain to inform a more patient-centered approach to emergency care. The authors conducted focus group discussions and individual interviews among patients visiting an urban academic ED for acute low back pain. They recruited participants from an ongoing prospective study of 101 patients receiving either ED-initiated physical therapy or usual care. They conducted 4 focus group discussions among 18 participants (median age 46.5 years, 66.7% women, 61.1% Black) and individual interviews with 27 participants (median age 45 years, 55.6% women, 44.4% White). They identified 5 summary themes: (1) the decision to seek emergency care for low back pain is motivated by severe pain, resulting disability, and fears about a catastrophic diagnosis, (2) participants sought various goals from their ED visit but emphasized the primacy of pain control, (3) participants were reluctant to use pain medications but also acknowledged their benefit, (4) participants perceived a number of benefits from direct access to an ED physical therapist in the ED, and (5) participation in physical therapy ultimately facilitated recovery, but the pain was a barrier to performing exercises.
AHRQ-funded; HS023011; HS027426.
Citation: Kim HS, Strickland KJ, Seitz AL . Patient perspectives on seeking emergency care for acute low back pain and access to physical therapy in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med 2023 Aug; 82(2):154-63. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2022.12.028..
Keywords: Emergency Department, Back Health and Pain, Pain
Young AL, Monuteaux MC, Cooney TM
Predictors of delayed diagnosis of pediatric CNS tumors in the emergency department.
Delays in the diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) tumors in children may lead to adverse outcomes and undue burdens on families. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related with delayed emergency department (ED) diagnosis to identify approaches to reduce delays. Researchers included 2828 children, 76% were controls, 24% were cases). Among cases, 68% had 1 preceding ED visit, 21% had 2, and 11% had 3 or more. The study found significant predictors of delayed diagnosis included presence of a complex chronic condition, rural hospital location, nonteaching hospital status, age younger than 5 years, public insurance, and black race.
Citation: Young AL, Monuteaux MC, Cooney TM . Predictors of delayed diagnosis of pediatric CNS tumors in the emergency department. Pediatr Emerg Care 2023 Aug; 39(8):617-22. doi: 10.1097/pec.0000000000002943..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Diagnostic Safety and Quality, Cancer, Emergency Department
Weekes AJ, Davison J, Lupez K
Quality of life 1 month after acute pulmonary embolism in emergency department patients.
The objective of this prospective multicenter registry study was to determine whether any clinical or pathophysiologic features of pulmonary embolism were associated with worse Pulmonary Embolism Quality-of-Life (PEmb-QoL) scores after one month. Pulmonary embolism patients participated in QoL assessments and received PEmb-QoL questionnaires conducted by the researchers. Results indicated that acute clinical deterioration, right ventricular dysfunction, and pulmonary embolism PE severity were not predictors of QoL at 1 month post-embolism. Independent predictors of worsened QoL were COPD, rehospitalization, and hospital length of stay.
Citation: Weekes AJ, Davison J, Lupez K . Quality of life 1 month after acute pulmonary embolism in emergency department patients. Acad Emerg Med 2023 Aug; 30(8):819-31. doi: 10.1111/acem.14692..
Keywords: Quality of Life, Respiratory Conditions, Emergency Department
Decker S, Dworsky M, Gibson TB
AHRQ Author: Decker S
The Impact of the Affordable Care Act Insurance Expansions on Opioid-Related Emergency Department Visits.
The authors leveraged ACA coverage expansions, including Medicaid expansion and Marketplaces, to study the impact of health insurance on opioid-related emergency department (ED) visits. They used ZIP-code–level ED utilization data from HCUP’s State Inpatient Databases (SID) and State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD) for 29 states. They found evidence of a dose-response relationship between pre-ACA uninsured and changes in ED visit rates in both expansion and non-expansion states: areas with higher uninsured rates prior to ACA saw larger reductions in opioid-related ED visits after the ACA took effect. The authors concluded that these findings suggest that increased insurance coverage may to help mitigate the opioid crisis.
Citation: Decker S, Dworsky M, Gibson TB . The Impact of the Affordable Care Act Insurance Expansions on Opioid-Related Emergency Department Visits. American Journal of Health Economics 2023 Sum; 9(3):405–34..
Keywords: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Opioids, Policy, Health Insurance, Emergency Department, Access to Care, Medicaid, Healthcare Utilization
Vest JR, Mazurenko O
Non-response bias in social risk factor screening among adult emergency department patients.
This study assessed differences between respondents and those refusing participation in social factor screening questionnaires to determine if non-response contributed to selection bias. Study subjects were patients from a mid-western state safety-net hospital's emergency department aged 18 or older, English or Spanish speakers, and able to complete a self-administered questionnaire. Results indicated that subjects with prior documentation of financial insecurity were less likely to respond to the screening questionnaire, but no other factors were significantly associated with response. The authors concluded that this study contributed to the growing social determinants of health literature by confirming that selection bias might exist within screening practices and research studies.
Citation: Vest JR, Mazurenko O . Non-response bias in social risk factor screening among adult emergency department patients. J Med Syst 2023 Jul 22; 47(1):78. doi: 10.1007/s10916-023-01975-8..
Keywords: Emergency Department, Screening, Social Determinants of Health
Thakrar AP, Faude S, Perrone J
Association of urine fentanyl concentration with severity of opioid withdrawal among patients presenting to the emergency department.
This study’s aim was to determine whether urine fentanyl concentration is associated with severity of opioid withdrawal. The study was conducted in 3 emergency departments in an urban, academic health system from January 1, 2020, to December 31, 2021. It included patients with opioid use disorder, detectable urine fentanyl or norfentanyl, and Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS) recorded within 6 hours of urine drug testing. Primary exposure measured was urine fentanyl concentration stratified as high (>400 ng/mL), medium (40-399 ng/mL), or low (<40 ng/mL). COWS was used to measure opioid withdrawal severity within 6 hours before or after urine specimen collection. A total of 1127 patients were included in the sample, with a mean age (SD) of 40.0 (10.7), 384 (34.1%) identified as female, 332 (29.5%) reported their race/ethnicity as non-Hispanic Black, and 658 (58.4%) reported their race/ethnicity as non-Hispanic White. For patients with high urine fentanyl concentrations, the adjusted mean COWS was 4.4 (3.9-4.8) compared with 5.5 (5.1-6.0) among those with medium and 7.7 (6.8-8.7) among those with low fentanyl concentrations.
Citation: Thakrar AP, Faude S, Perrone J . Association of urine fentanyl concentration with severity of opioid withdrawal among patients presenting to the emergency department. J Addict Med 2023 Jul-Aug; 17(4):447-53. doi: 10.1097/adm.0000000000001155..
Keywords: Opioids, Medication, Emergency Department, Substance Abuse
Chen EH, Dessie AS, Druck J
Executive summary of the SAEM 2022 consensus conference to address racism in emergency medicine clinical research, training, and leadership.
This article summarizes the executive summary of the 2022 Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) consensus conference, "Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion: Developing a Research Agenda for Addressing Racism in Emergency Medicine”. The conference convened a diverse group of researchers, educators, administrative leaders, and health care providers to help address the impact of racism in three domains in academic emergency medicine: clinical research, education and training, and academic leadership. The planning committee identified the three fundamental domains to develop a research agenda and created workgroups who completed a literature search to identify gaps in knowledge domain to generate consensus recommendations for priority research. RESULTS: For clinical research, three research gaps with six questions were identified: remedies for bias and systematic racism (3), biases and heuristics in clinical care (2), and racism in study design (1). For education and training, the workgroup identified three research gaps with seven questions: curriculum and assessment (2), recruitment (1), and learning environment (4). For the academic leadership workgroup, three research gaps with five questions were identified: understanding the current diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) landscape and culture (1), analyzing programs that improve DEI and identifying factors that lead to improved diversity (3), and quantifying the value of professional stewardship activities (1).
Citation: Chen EH, Dessie AS, Druck J . Executive summary of the SAEM 2022 consensus conference to address racism in emergency medicine clinical research, training, and leadership. Acad Emerg Med 2023 Jul; 30(7):765-72. doi: 10.1111/acem.14727..
Keywords: Emergency Department, Racial and Ethnic Minorities
Hoonakker PLT, Carayon P, Brown RL
Satisfaction of older patients with emergency department care: psychometric properties and construct validity of the Consumer Emergency Care Satisfaction Scale.
This study’s purpose to was examine the construct validity of the Consumer Emergency Care Satisfaction Scale (CECSS), designed to measure patient satisfaction in the emergency department (ED). The authors administered 2 surveys to older adults who presented with a fall to the ED and used electronic health record data to examine construct validity of the CECSS and ceiling effects. Using several criteria, they improved construct validity of the CECSS, reduced ceiling effects, and standardized scoring.
Citation: Hoonakker PLT, Carayon P, Brown RL . Satisfaction of older patients with emergency department care: psychometric properties and construct validity of the Consumer Emergency Care Satisfaction Scale. J Nurs Care Qual 2023 Jul-Sep; 38(3):256-63. doi: 10.1097/ncq.0000000000000694..
Keywords: Elderly, Emergency Department, Patient Experience
Hoffman JA, Pergjika A, Liu L
Standardizing and improving care for pediatric agitation management in the emergency department.
In the U.S., pediatric mental health emergency department (ED) visits are increasing, with a greater number of visits involving the prescription of medication for acute agitation. Well timed, consistent application of behavioral strategies and medications may decrease the need for physical restraint of pediatric patients. The purpose of this study was to standardize agitation management in a pediatric ED and decrease pediatric patient time in physical restraints. From September 2020 to August 2021, researchers implemented a quality improvement initiative followed by a 6-month maintenance period. A barrier evaluation discovered that agitation triggers were not adequately recognized, there were few activities provided for children during lengthy ED visits, ED staff did not have confidence in techniques for verbally deescalating events, choices for medication were not consistent, and medication administered took time to take effect. Consecutive interventions included the development of a pathway and order set for agitation care, optimization of workflows for child life and psychiatry, implementation of personalized de-escalation plans, and adding the medication droperidol to the ED formulary. The measures utilize din the study included standardization of medication choice for severe agitation and time in physical restraints. The study found that during the intervention and maintenance components, there were 129 ED visits with medication administered for severe agitation and 10 ED visits where physical restraints were used. Among ED visits with medication given for severe agitation, there was an increase from 8% to 88% in standardized medication choice (olanzapine or droperidol), and a decrease in mean minutes in physical restraints from 173 to 71.
Citation: Hoffman JA, Pergjika A, Liu L . Standardizing and improving care for pediatric agitation management in the emergency department. Pediatrics 2023 Jul 1; 152(1). doi: 10.1542/peds.2022-059586..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Emergency Department, Behavioral Health, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care
Huff NR, Chimowitz H, DelPico MA
The consequences of emotionally evocative patient behaviors on emergency nurses' patient assessments and handoffs: an experimental study using simulated patient cases.
The purpose of this experimental vignette research study was to explore the impact of emotionally evocative patient behavior and mental illness on 130 emergency nurses' emotions, patient assessments, testing advocacy, and written handoffs. The researchers asked the nurses to complete four multimedia computer-simulated patient encounters in which patient behavior (irritable vs. calm) and mental illness (present vs. absent) were purposely varied. The nurses recorded their emotions and clinical evaluations, recommended diagnostic tests, and provided written handoffs. The study found that the nurses experienced greater negative emotions (anger, unease) and reported decreased engagement when evaluating patients demonstrating irritable (vs. calm) behavior. Nurses also considered patients with irritable (vs. calm) behavior as more likely to exaggerate their pain and as poorer historians, and as less likely to cooperate, return to work, and recover. Nurses' handoffs were more likely to include negative descriptions of patients with irritable (vs. calm) behavior and exclude specific clinical information. The existence of mental illness increased unease and sadness and lead to nurses being less likely to recommend a needed test for a correct diagnosis.
Citation: Huff NR, Chimowitz H, DelPico MA . The consequences of emotionally evocative patient behaviors on emergency nurses' patient assessments and handoffs: an experimental study using simulated patient cases. Int J Nurs Stud 2023 Jul; 143:104507. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2023.104507..
Keywords: Emergency Department, Behavioral Health, Nursing, Workflow
Isbell LM, Chimowitz H, Huff NR
A qualitative study of emergency physicians' and nurses' experiences caring for patients with psychiatric conditions and/or substance use disorders.
This study’s aim was to develop a comprehensive data-driven model of the complex challenges and unique dynamics associated with caring for patients with psychiatric conditions and/or substance use disorders (SUDs) in the emergency department (ED), as well as the effect on patient care quality. The authors conducted a preplanned topical analysis of grounded theory data obtained from semistructured interviews with 86 ED physicians and nurses from 8 hospitals in the Northeastern USA. Participants described in detail their experiences and challenges in caring for patients with psychiatric conditions and/or SUDs. The authors identified themes inductively using constant comparative analysis and developed a grounded model of physicians' and nurses' perceptions of challenges, biases, and effects on patient care. Challenges identified were emotional, diagnostic, and logistical. These challenges magnified existing health care system issues and social structures, which fuel and reinforce negative attitudes, expectations, and biases. This creates a cyclical process whereby challenges and biases associated with patients with psychiatric conditions and/or SUDs can reciprocally threaten patient care quality.
Citation: Isbell LM, Chimowitz H, Huff NR . A qualitative study of emergency physicians' and nurses' experiences caring for patients with psychiatric conditions and/or substance use disorders. Ann Emerg Med 2023 Jun; 81(6):715-27. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2022.10.014..
Keywords: Behavioral Health, Substance Abuse, Emergency Department, Provider: Nurse, Provider: Physician
Chang L, Stewart AM, Kester K
Association of homelessness with emergency department use among children in New York.
This research letter describes a cross-sectional study that was conducted to evaluate the association of homelessness with emergency department (ED) use among children in New York. The study used the HCUP State Emergency Department Database and State Inpatient Database for New York including children 18 years and younger with an ED visit between 2014 and 2018. The primary outcome was frequent ED use, defined as 4 or more visits per calendar year. The authors determined visit incident rates for all children for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (asthma, diabetes, gastroenteritis, urinary tract infection), injuries and poisonings, and mental health problems based on ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes. Frequent ED use was more common among children experiencing homelessness, occurring in 22.1% vs 4.3% of children who were housed. Children experiencing homelessness had higher incidences of asthma, diabetes, urinary tract infections, and mental health problems and lower incidences of injuries and poisonings, which lead to higher admission rates overall (42.1% vs 0.7%) and to ICUs (4.1% vs 0.7%). Admission rates were higher across all diagnoses and to ICUs for asthma, gastroenteritis, and injuries and poisonings. ED usage rates were highest for homeless children aged 12-17 (40.2% of all children).
Citation: Chang L, Stewart AM, Kester K . Association of homelessness with emergency department use among children in New York. JAMA Pediatr 2023 Jun; 177(6):637-40. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2023.0478..
Keywords: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Children/Adolescents, Vulnerable Populations, Emergency Department
Jenkins JL, Hsu EB, Zhang A
Current evidence for infection prevention and control interventions in emergency medical services: a scoping review.
This study’s aim was to summarize current evidence from the United States on the effectiveness of practices and interventions for preventing, recognizing, and controlling occupationally acquired infectious diseases in Emergency Medical Service (EMS) clinicians. A database search was conducted for literature published January 2006 through March 15, 2022 to search for studies in the United States that involved EMS clinicians and firefighters, reported on one or more workplace practices or interventions that prevented or controlled infectious diseases, and included outcome measures. Eleven observational studies reported on infection prevention and control (IPC) practices providing evidence that hand hygiene, standard precautions, mandatory vaccine policies, and on-site vaccine clinics are effective. Less frequent handwashing and less frequent hand hygiene after glove use were positively correlated with nasal colonization of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Lack of personal protective equipment (PPE) or PPE breach were correlated with higher severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seropositivity and virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seropositivity. Workers were more likely to be vaccinated against influenza if their employer offered the vaccine. Vaccination rates for H1N1 influenza increased with the use of active, targeted education modules.
Citation: Jenkins JL, Hsu EB, Zhang A . Current evidence for infection prevention and control interventions in emergency medical services: a scoping review. Prehosp Disaster Med 2023 Jun; 38(3):371-77. doi: 10.1017/s1049023x23000389..
Keywords: COVID-19, Emergency Department, Evidence-Based Practice, Prevention, Public Health, Infectious Diseases
Johnson CL, Colley A, Pierce L
Disparities in advance care planning rates persist among emergency general surgery patients: current state and recommendations for improvement.
A sudden shift in health condition and the intensification of chronic conditions often necessitate the consideration of emergency general surgery (EGS). While goal-oriented care discussions can enhance goal-concordant care and mitigate feelings of depression and anxiety in patients and caregivers, such conversations, along with standardized documentation, are seldom conducted for EGS patients. The researchers conducted a retrospective cohort study employing data from electronic health records of patients admitted to the EGS service in a high-level academic center to ascertain the frequency of significant advance care planning (ACP) documentation (discussions and legal ACP forms) during EGS hospitalization. Multivariable regression was used to identify patient, clinician, and procedural elements contributing to the absence of ACP. The study found that out of the 681 patients admitted to the EGS service in 2019, only 20.1% had ACP documentation in the electronic health record at any stage during their hospital stay. Two-thirds (65.8%) of the entire cohort underwent surgery during their admission, but none of them had an ACP conversation documented with the surgical team before the operation. Patients with ACP documentation were likely to be insured by Medicare and had a higher incidence of comorbid conditions.
Citation: Johnson CL, Colley A, Pierce L . Disparities in advance care planning rates persist among emergency general surgery patients: current state and recommendations for improvement. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2023 Jun; 94(6):863-69. doi: 10.1097/ta.0000000000003909..
Keywords: Disparities, Surgery, Emergency Department, Chronic Conditions
Michelson KA, McGarghan FLE, Patterson EE
Clinician factors associated with delayed diagnosis of appendicitis.
The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of clinician demographics and practice patterns with delayed appendicitis diagnosis. The researchers included children presenting with appendicitis at 13 regional emergency departments (EDs), screening patients for delayed diagnosis through a chart review for a previous ED visit within 7 days. The study found that among 7,452 children with appendicitis, 1.4% (105) had delayed diagnosis. Clinicians who used more blood tests in their general practice had a lower risk of delayed diagnosis of appendicitis. Clinicians' specialty, gender, rates of imaging, and experience were not related with delayed diagnosis.
Citation: Michelson KA, McGarghan FLE, Patterson EE . Clinician factors associated with delayed diagnosis of appendicitis. Diagnosis 2023 May; 10(2):183-86. doi: 10.1515/dx-2022-0119..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Diagnostic Safety and Quality, Emergency Department
Prasad PA, Correia J, Fang MC
Performance of point-of-care severity scores to predict prognosis in patients admitted through the emergency department with COVID-19.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether sepsis risk stratification scores can predict poor outcomes among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The researchers retrospectively evaluated a cohort of adults presenting with COVID-19 to 156 Hospital Corporation of America (HCA) Healthcare emergency departments (Eds) from March 2, 2020, to February 11, 2021. The study administered the Quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA), Shock Index, National Early Warning System-2 (NEWS2), and quick COVID-19 Severity Index (qCSI) at patient presentation. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality, and secondary outcomes included intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation, and vasopressors receipt. The study identified 90,376 patients with community-acquired COVID-19. 17.2% of patients died in-hospital, 28.6% went to the ICU, 13.7% received mechanical ventilation, and 13.6% received vasopressors. There were 3.8% qSOFA-positive, 45.1% Shock Index-positive, 49.8% NEWS2-positive, and 37.6% qCSI-positive at ED-triage. NEWS2 exhibited the highest AUROC for in-hospital mortality, followed by ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and vasopressor receipt. The researchers concluded that sepsis severity scores at presentation have low discriminative power to predict outcomes in COVID-19 patients and are not reliable for clinical use.
Citation: Prasad PA, Correia J, Fang MC . Performance of point-of-care severity scores to predict prognosis in patients admitted through the emergency department with COVID-19. J Hosp Med 2023 May; 18(5):413-23. doi: 10.1002/jhm.13106..
Keywords: COVID-19, Emergency Department, Diagnostic Safety and Quality