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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 44 Research Studies Displayed
Cohen TN, Anger JT, Kanji FF
A novel approach for engagement in team training in high-technology surgery: the Robotic-Assisted Surgery Olympics.
The purpose of this study was to develop the “Robotic-Assisted Surgery (RAS) Olympics,” a “serious game”-based educational competition to improve the skills required to successfully perform RAS. The pilot study was conducted at an academic medical center in Southern California. Sixteen operating room members participated in the event, reporting that they preferred the RAS Olympics to traditional training, enjoyed the activity, would recommend all staff participate, felt that it was relevant to their work, and believed that they practiced and learned new techniques that would improve their practice. The participants’ confidence in their skills did not change. The researchers concluded that new information was gained about new possibilities for simultaneously engaging and training surgical staff while emphasizing RAS safety and efficiency.
Citation: Cohen TN, Anger JT, Kanji FF . A novel approach for engagement in team training in high-technology surgery: the Robotic-Assisted Surgery Olympics. J Patient Saf 2022 Sep 1;18(6):570-77. doi: 10.1097/pts.0000000000001056..
Keywords: Surgery, Training, Education: Continuing Medical Education, Simulation, Teams
Shields AD, Battistelli J, Kavanagh L
Staying current: developing just-in-time evidence-ased learning objectives for a maternal cardiac arrest simulation curriculum.
The authors’ objective was to review the latest evidence on resuscitation care for maternal cardiac arrest (MCA) and to gain expert consensus on best practices to inform an evidence-based curriculum. A multidisciplinary panel of stakeholders in MCA developed an evidence-based simulation training, Obstetric Life Support™ (OBLS). The researchers found that a novel three-step process including reaffirmation of evidence process, systematic review, and a modified Research and Development technique resulted in unanimous consensus from experts in MCA resuscitation on existing and new just-in-time best practices to inform the learning objectives for an evidence-based curriculum.
Citation: Shields AD, Battistelli J, Kavanagh L . Staying current: developing just-in-time evidence-ased learning objectives for a maternal cardiac arrest simulation curriculum. Cardiol Cardiovasc Med 2022 Jun;6(3):245-54. doi: 10.26502/fccm.92920260..
Keywords: Evidence-Based Practice, Education: Curriculum, Simulation, Heart Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions, Women, Education: Academic
Evans LV, Ray JM, Bonz JW
Improving patient and clinician safety during COVID-19 through rapidly adaptive simulation and a randomised controlled trial: a study protocol.
The purpose of this study will be to simultaneously assess the challenges and facilitators of COVID-19 preparedness in the emergency department (ED) and the mitigation of emergency physician stress, test the effectiveness of a simulation preparedness intervention on physician physiological stress, and improve physician preparedness while decreasing physician stress and anxiety.
Citation: Evans LV, Ray JM, Bonz JW . Improving patient and clinician safety during COVID-19 through rapidly adaptive simulation and a randomised controlled trial: a study protocol. BMJ Open 2022 May 19;12(5):e058980. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-058980..
Keywords: COVID-19, Patient Safety, Simulation, Burnout, Provider: Clinician
Kuijpers L, Binkhorst M, Yamada NK
Validation of an instrument for real-time assessment of neonatal intubation skills: a randomized controlled simulation study.
This study’s aim was to evaluate the construct validity and reliability of real-time assessment of a previously developed neonatal intubation scoring instrument (NIST). This randomized controlled simulation study was performed at a simulation-based research and training facility. Twenty-four experienced clinicians and 11 medical students performed two identical elective intubations on a neonatal patient simulation. The subjects were randomly assigned to either the intervention group, who received predefined feedback between the two intubations, or the control group who received no feedback. There was a statistically significant different median change in percentage scores between the intervention and control groups between the first and second intubations. Construct validity was proven for the neonatal scoring instrument.
Citation: Kuijpers L, Binkhorst M, Yamada NK . Validation of an instrument for real-time assessment of neonatal intubation skills: a randomized controlled simulation study. Am J Perinatol 2022 Jan;39(2):195-203. doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1715530..
Keywords: Newborns/Infants, Simulation, Education: Continuing Medical Education
Murray DJ, Boulet JR, Boyle WA
Competence in decision making: setting performance standards for critical care.
Health care professionals must be able to make frequent and timely decisions that can alter the illness trajectory of intensive care patients. A competence standard for this ability is difficult to establish yet assuring practitioners can make appropriate judgments is an important step in advancing patient safety. In this study, the investigators hypothesized that simulation could be used effectively to assess decision-making competence.
Citation: Murray DJ, Boulet JR, Boyle WA . Competence in decision making: setting performance standards for critical care. Anesth Analg 2021 Jul 1;133(1):142-50. doi: 10.1213/ane.0000000000005053..
Keywords: Critical Care, Decision Making, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Simulation, Provider Performance, Patient Safety, Quality of Care
Colman N, Newman JW, Nishisaki A
Translational simulation improves compliance with the NEAR4KIDS Airway Safety Bundle in a single-center PICU.
This single-center retrospective review discusses a translational simulation conducted to improve compliance with the National Emergency Airway Registry for Children (NEAR4KIDS) Airway Safety Quality Improvement (QI) bundle to improve the safety of tracheal intubations. The simulation was implemented between March and December 2018. Bundle adherence was assessed 12 months before simulation and 9 months after. Primary outcomes measures were compliance with the bundle and utilization of apneic oxygenation and secondary outcomes was the occurrence of adverse tracheal intubation-associated events. Preintervention bundle compliance was 66%, which increased to 93.7% after the simulation intervention. Adherence to apneic oxygenation was 27.9% before the intervention and increased to 77.9% after. There was no difference in the occurrence of tracheal intubation events.
Citation: Colman N, Newman JW, Nishisaki A . Translational simulation improves compliance with the NEAR4KIDS Airway Safety Bundle in a single-center PICU. Pediatr Qual Saf 2021 May-Jun;6(3):e409. doi: 10.1097/pq9.0000000000000409..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Critical Care, Registries, Simulation, Patient Safety, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care
Sinz E, Banerjee A, Steadman R
Reliability of simulation-based assessment for practicing physicians: performance is context-specific.
Even physicians who routinely work in complex, dynamic practices may be unprepared to optimally manage challenging critical events. High-fidelity simulation can realistically mimic critical clinically relevant events, however the reliability and validity of simulation-based assessment scores for practicing physicians has not been established. In this study, standardised complex simulation scenarios were developed and administered to board-certified, practicing anesthesiologists who volunteered to participate in an assessment study during formative maintenance of certification activities.
Citation: Sinz E, Banerjee A, Steadman R . Reliability of simulation-based assessment for practicing physicians: performance is context-specific. BMC Med Educ 2021 Apr 12;21(1):207. doi: 10.1186/s12909-021-02617-8..
Keywords: Simulation, Education: Continuing Medical Education, Training, Provider Performance
Mazur LM, Adams R, Mosaly PR
Effect of simulation-based training and neurofeedback interventions on radiation technologists' workload, situation awareness, and performance.
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a combined intervention - simulation-based training supported by neurofeedback sessions - on radiation technologists' (RTs') workload, situation awareness, and performance during routine quality assurance and treatment delivery tasks. The investigators found that RTs randomized to simulation-based training followed by neurofeedback sessions demonstrated no significant changes in perceived workload or situation awareness scores but did have better performance compared with other study groups (P < .01).
Citation: Mazur LM, Adams R, Mosaly PR . Effect of simulation-based training and neurofeedback interventions on radiation technologists' workload, situation awareness, and performance. Pract Radiat Oncol 2021 Mar-Apr;11(2):e124-e33. doi: 10.1016/j.prro.2020.08.005..
Keywords: Simulation, Training, Provider Performance, Provider: Health Personnel
Balikai SC, Badheka A, Casey A
Simulation to train pediatric ICU teams in endotracheal intubation of patients with COVID-19.
This paper describes the outcomes of pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) simulation training to safely perform endotracheal intubations in children with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. Confidence levels before and after training was measured using the Simulation Effectiveness Tool-Modified (SET-M, Likert scale 0-2). Fifty unique PICU staff members participated in 9 simulation sessions and mean confidences scores increased from 0.9 to 2.
Citation: Balikai SC, Badheka A, Casey A . Simulation to train pediatric ICU teams in endotracheal intubation of patients with COVID-19. Pediatr Qual Saf 2021 Jan-Feb;6(1):e373. doi: 10.1097/pq9.0000000000000373..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, COVID-19, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Critical Care, Simulation, Training, Public Health, Infectious Diseases
Ellis AG, Iskandar R, Schmid CH
Active learning for efficiently training emulators of computationally expensive mathematical models.
The authors described a self-terminating active learning algorithm to efficiently develop emulators tailored to a specific emulation task and compared it with algorithms that optimize geometric criteria and other active learning algorithms. They found that the proposed algorithm attained satisfactory performance in all analyses, had smaller variability than the treed Gaussian Processes, and, on average, had similar or better performance as the treed Gaussian Processes in six out of seven benchmark functions and in the prostate cancer model.
Citation: Ellis AG, Iskandar R, Schmid CH . Active learning for efficiently training emulators of computationally expensive mathematical models. Stat Med 2020 Nov 10;39(25):3521-48. doi: 10.1002/sim.8679..
Luo B, McLoone M, Rasooly IR
Analysis: protocol for a new method to measure physiologic monitor alarm responsiveness.
A team of researchers including biomedical engineers, human factors engineers, information technology specialists, nurses, physicians, facilitators from a hospital’s simulation center, clinical informaticians, and hospital administrative leadership worked with three units at a pediatric hospital to design and conduct simulations on newly implemented monitoring technology that will be used for patient critical alarms. The system was tested using a simulation with existing hospital technology to transmit an unambiguously critical alarm that appeared to originate from an actual patient to the nurse’s mobile device, with discreet observers measuring responses.
Citation: Luo B, McLoone M, Rasooly IR . Analysis: protocol for a new method to measure physiologic monitor alarm responsiveness. Biomed Instrum Technol 2020 Nov/Dec;54(6):389-96. doi: 10.2345/0899-8205-54.6.389..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Hospitals, Simulation, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Patient Safety, Health Information Technology (HIT)
Dadiz R, Riccio J, Brown K
Qualitative analysis of latent safety threats uncovered by in situ simulation-based operations testing before moving into a single-family-room neonatal intensive care unit.
This study’s objective was to identify 1) latent safety threats (LSTs) in a new neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) through simulation-based pre-occupancy operations testing, and 2) LSTs that remained unresolved 1-year post-occupancy. This qualitative study included 111 healthcare professionals who participated in patient care simulations and debriefings in a new NICU. Debriefing transcripts were analyzed to characterize LSTs. Three-hundred threats with four major themes affecting staff function and patient safety emerged: relay of information, workplace design, patient care processes, and patient family and staff focus. One-year post occupancy 29 (9%) LSTs were still unresolved.
AHRQ-funded; R18 HS023460.
Citation: Dadiz R, Riccio J, Brown K . Qualitative analysis of latent safety threats uncovered by in situ simulation-based operations testing before moving into a single-family-room neonatal intensive care unit. J Perinatol 2020 Sep;40(Suppl 1):29-35. doi: 10.1038/s41372-020-0749-3..
Keywords: Newborns/Infants, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Patient Safety, Simulation
Rozenfeld RA, Nannicelli AP, Brown AR
Verbal communication during airway management and emergent endotracheal intubation: observations of team behavior among multi-institutional pediatric intensive care unit in situ simulations.
The objective of this study was to assess health-care teams' verbal communication, an observable teamwork behavior, during simulations involving pediatric emergency airway management and intubation. The investigators found that no uniform statement was identified to declare an airway emergency among the care teams. Preintubation medication dosages were not consistently included in intubation medication orders, and frequently, there were multiple requests to obtain medications.
Citation: Rozenfeld RA, Nannicelli AP, Brown AR . Verbal communication during airway management and emergent endotracheal intubation: observations of team behavior among multi-institutional pediatric intensive care unit in situ simulations. J Patient Saf 2020 Sep;16(3):e114-e19. doi: 10.1097/pts.0000000000000272..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Critical Care, Teams, Communication, Simulation
Nuamah JK, Adapa K, Mazur L
Electronic health records (EHR) simulation-based training: a scoping review protocol.
This article describes a literature review that will be conducted on the evidence for electronic health record (EHR)-based training interventions to facilitate improved EHR use for healthcare providers. Three databases will be searched for published articles and ProQuest and Google Scholar will be searched to identify unpublished articles from inception to January 29, 2020. Two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstracts using inclusion and exclusion criteria. Based on the extracted data, research evidence will be synthesized.
Citation: Nuamah JK, Adapa K, Mazur L . Electronic health records (EHR) simulation-based training: a scoping review protocol. BMJ Open 2020 Aug 11;10(8):e036884. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-036884..
Keywords: Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Health Information Technology (HIT), Research Methodologies, Simulation
Thomas GW, Long S, Tatum M
A vision for using simulation & virtual coaching to improve the community practice of orthopedic trauma surgery.
In this paper, a vision is presented to elevate community orthopedic practice and improve patient safety by advancing the use of simulators for training and assessing surgical skills. Key elements of this vision included 1) methods for the objective and rigorous assessment of the performance of practicing surgeons now exist, 2) simulators are sufficiently mature and sophisticated that practicing surgeons will use them, and 3) practicing surgeons can improve their performance with appropriate feedback and coaching.
AHRQ-funded; HS022077; HS025353.
Citation: Thomas GW, Long S, Tatum M . A vision for using simulation & virtual coaching to improve the community practice of orthopedic trauma surgery. Iowa Orthop J 2020;40(1):25-34..
Keywords: Orthopedics, Surgery, Simulation, Training, Provider: Physician, Provider
Daly Guris RJ, Doshi A, Boyer DL
Just-in-time simulation to guide workflow design for coronavirus disease 2019 difficult airway management.
This paper describes the development and enactment of a number of simulation exercises, increasing in complexity for clinicians to practice intubation of critically ill children while wearing personal protective equipment due to coronavirus disease. The simulations ended up aiding in a real-life situation that then occurred less than 12 hours later that validated potential failure points and effectiveness of rapidly generated guidance. From this simulation a COVID-19 airway bundle template was created.
AHRQ-funded; HS026939; HS024511.
Citation: Daly Guris RJ, Doshi A, Boyer DL . Just-in-time simulation to guide workflow design for coronavirus disease 2019 difficult airway management. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2020 Aug;21(8):e485-e90. doi: 10.1097/pcc.0000000000002435..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, COVID-19, Respiratory Conditions, Workflow, Simulation, Training
Panchal AR, Finnegan G, Way DP
Assessment of paramedic performance on difficult airway simulation.
The purpose of this study was to assess paramedic comprehensive airway management practices during a difficult airway simulation through which paramedics were obligated to consider alternatives to endotracheal intubation (ETI). The investigators concluded that in a difficult airway management scenario designed for low ETI success rates, even experienced paramedics were challenged with comprehensive airway management. This was exemplified by difficulties with the use of backup airway devices.
Citation: Panchal AR, Finnegan G, Way DP . Assessment of paramedic performance on difficult airway simulation. Prehosp Emerg Care 2020 May-Jun;24(3):411-20. doi: 10.3109/10903127.2015.1102993..
Keywords: Simulation, Emergency Medical Services (EMS), Training, Quality of Care, Care Management, Provider Performance
Elison DM, McConnaughey S, Freeman RV
Focused cardiac ultrasound training in medical students: using an independent, simulator-based curriculum to objectively measure skill acquisition and learning curve.
Using simulators built and validated at the University of Washington (UW), the study sought to test whether medical students could learn the basic skills of focused cardiac ultrasound (FoCUS) from an individually paced, simulator-based curriculum, how skills improved, and the rate at which these skills were acquired. The study described the learning curve and technical skill acquisition in FoCUS. The investigators concluded that the simulator-based curriculum improved medical student's skills in an objective and quantifiable manner.
Citation: Elison DM, McConnaughey S, Freeman RV . Focused cardiac ultrasound training in medical students: using an independent, simulator-based curriculum to objectively measure skill acquisition and learning curve. Echocardiography 2020 Apr;37(4):491-96. doi: 10.1111/echo.14641..
Keywords: Education: Curriculum, Simulation
McCarthy DM, Powell RE, Cameron KA
Simulation-based mastery learning compared to standard education for discussing diagnostic uncertainty with patients in the emergency department: a randomized controlled trial.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Uncertainty Communication Education Module (UCEM) in improving physician communications. Patients' understanding of the care they received has implications for care quality, safety, and patient satisfaction, especially when they are discharged without a definitive diagnosis. Developing a patient-centered diagnostic uncertainty communication strategy will improve safety of acute care discharges. This trial has been designed to have a low-resource, scalable intervention that would allow for widespread dissemination and uptake.
Citation: McCarthy DM, Powell RE, Cameron KA . Simulation-based mastery learning compared to standard education for discussing diagnostic uncertainty with patients in the emergency department: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Med Educ 2020 Feb 19;20(1):49. doi: 10.1186/s12909-020-1926-y..
Keywords: Education: Continuing Medical Education, Clinician-Patient Communication, Communication, Emergency Department, Simulation, Provider: Physician, Provider
Anton NE, Bean EA, Myers E
Optimizing learner engagement during mental skills training: a pilot study of small group vs. individualized training.
This study compared small group versus individualized training results for a group of residents learning laparoscopic suturing. Residents at one institution completed small group training and the second institution completed individualized training. After mental skills training, the completed FLS training at which time they completed the Short State Stress Questionnaire detailing the training. Twenty-one residents completed the training. Individualized training showed greater engagement and mental skills than small group training.
Citation: Anton NE, Bean EA, Myers E . Optimizing learner engagement during mental skills training: a pilot study of small group vs. individualized training. Am J Surg 2020 Feb;219(2):335-39. doi: 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2019.12.022..
Keywords: Training, Education: Continuing Medical Education, Simulation, Surgery, Education: Curriculum
Fernandez R, Rosenman ED, Olenick J
Simulation-based team leadership training improves team leadership during actual trauma resuscitations: a randomized controlled trial.
This study’s objective was to assess the clinical impact of simulation-based leadership training on team leadership and patient care during trauma resuscitations. A total of 79 second- and third-year residents at the Harborview Medical Center (a level 1 trauma center) were randomized and 360 resuscitations were analyzed. Participant-led actual trauma resuscitations were video recorded and then coded for leadership behaviors and patient care. Then the residents were randomized to a 4-hour simulation-based leadership training (intervention) or standard orientation (control) condition. The leadership behaviors were then scored pre- and post-training. There was a significant difference in post-training leadership behaviors between the intervention and control conditions.
Citation: Fernandez R, Rosenman ED, Olenick J . Simulation-based team leadership training improves team leadership during actual trauma resuscitations: a randomized controlled trial. Crit Care Med 2020 Jan;48(1):73-82. doi: 10.1097/ccm.0000000000004077..
Keywords: Teams, Trauma, Simulation, Training, Provider
Barker LT, Bond WF, Vincent AL
A novel in situ simulation framework for introduction of a new technology: the 3-Act-3-Debrief model.
Researchers studied a simulation-based introduction to new technologies in order to address specific factors that influence adoption. They found that a novel 3-stage simulation-debriefing structure positively targeted factors influencing the adoption of new healthcare technologies.
Citation: Barker LT, Bond WF, Vincent AL . A novel in situ simulation framework for introduction of a new technology: the 3-Act-3-Debrief model. Adv Simul 2020 Sep 25;5:25. doi: 10.1186/s41077-020-00145-x..
Keywords: Telehealth, Health Information Technology (HIT), Implementation, Simulation
Long SA, Thomas G, Karam MD
Do skills acquired from training with a wire navigation simulator transfer to a mock operating room environment?
This study compared performance of residents getting traditional and simulation orthopedic surgery training at three medical centers: University of Iowa, University of Minnesota, and the Mayo Clinic. All residents first received traditional training in how to treat an intertrochanteric fracture. Then the groups were divided up with two groups getting additional simulated-based training and another group getting proficiency training for specific components of wire navigation. The two simulation-based training groups performed better in lower tip-apex distance than the traditional training group. Residents in the proficiency training group used more images than the other groups.
AHRQ-funded; HS022077; HS025353.
Citation: Long SA, Thomas G, Karam MD . Do skills acquired from training with a wire navigation simulator transfer to a mock operating room environment? Clin Orthop Relat Res 2019 Oct;477(10):2189-98. doi: 10.1097/corr.0000000000000799..
Keywords: Simulation, Training, Education: Continuing Medical Education, Surgery, Orthopedics
Long S, Thomas GW, Anderson DD
An extensible orthopaedic wire navigation simulation platform.
The demand for simulation-based skills training in orthopaedics is steadily growing. Wire navigation, or the ability to use 2D images to place an implant through a specified path in bone, is an area of training that has been difficult to simulate given its reliance on radiation based fluoroscopy. The investigators group previously presented on the development of a wire navigation simulator for a hip fracture module. In this paper, they present a new methodology for extending the simulator to other surgical applications of wire navigation.
AHRQ-funded; HS022077; HS025353.
Citation: Long S, Thomas GW, Anderson DD . An extensible orthopaedic wire navigation simulation platform. J Med Device 2019 Sep;13(3):031001-310017. doi: 10.1115/1.4043461..
Keywords: Orthopedics, Simulation, Training, Surgery, Education: Continuing Medical Education
Martin JR, Anton N, Timsina L
Performance variability during training on simulators is associated with skill transfer.
Researchers looked at performance variability during training on simulators for performing laparoscopic surgery. Their hypothesis was that participants (surgery residents and medical students) who had consistent scores were most likely to have the most expertise and be capable of training others. The trainees first used the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) simulator to learn laparoscopic suturing and then were transfer tested on a live, anesthetized porcine model. Their hypothesis was proven true and those with decreased practice variability was associated with greater scores in posttests and transfer tests.
AHRQ-funded; R18 HS022080.
Citation: Martin JR, Anton N, Timsina L . Performance variability during training on simulators is associated with skill transfer. Surgery 2019 Jun;165(6):1065-68. doi: 10.1016/j.surg.2019.01.013..
Keywords: Simulation, Training, Surgery, Education: Continuing Medical Education, Provider Performance, Provider: Physician, Provider