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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 5 of 5 Research Studies Displayed
Heslin KC, Barrett ML, Hensche M
AHRQ Author: Heslin KC, Karaca Z, Owens PL
Effects of hurricanes on emergency department utilization: an analysis across 7 US storms.
This study examines changes in emergency department (ED) utilization for residents of 344 counties after the occurrence of 7 US hurricanes between 2005 and 2016. Using HCUP data, findings showed that the overall population rate of weekly ED visits changed little post-hurricane, but rates by disease categories and age demonstrated varying results. ED utilization rates for respiratory disorders exhibited the largest post-hurricane increase, especially 2-3 weeks following the hurricane. The change in population rates by disease categories and age tended to be higher for people residing in counties closer to the hurricane path.
Citation: Heslin KC, Barrett ML, Hensche M . Effects of hurricanes on emergency department utilization: an analysis across 7 US storms. Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2021 Dec;15(6):762-69. doi: 10.1017/dmp.2020.281..
Keywords: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Emergency Department, Healthcare Utilization, Emergency Preparedness
Jones K, Mantey J, Washer L
When planning meets reality: COVID-19 interpandemic survey of Michigan nursing homes.
This survey examined conditions at Michigan nursing homes (NHs) during the COVID-19 pandemic period. This survey evaluated preparedness, staffing, testing, and adaptations made due to COVID. Of 452 Michigan NHs contacted via email, 145 opened the survey of those,143 responded from May 1-12, 2020. Two-thirds reported shortages of personal protective equipment. Half lacked sufficient testing resources with only 36% able to test residents and staff when needed. A majority (55%) experienced staffing shortages, with 63% experiencing resignations with front-line clinical staff more likely to resign. Facilities showed rapid adaptation, with 78% creating COVID-19 units to care for patients on site. To reduce isolation, most NHs facilitated communication via phone calls, videoconferencing, and window visits. The majority continued to provide normal required therapies (90%).
Citation: Jones K, Mantey J, Washer L . When planning meets reality: COVID-19 interpandemic survey of Michigan nursing homes. Am J Infect Control 2021 Nov;49(11):1343-49. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2021.03.016..
Keywords: COVID-19, Nursing Homes, Public Health, Emergency Preparedness
Chelen JSC, White DB, Zaza S
US ventilator allocation and patient triage policies in anticipation of the COVID-19 surge.
Researchers assessed policy preparedness and substantive triage criteria within existing policies using a cross-sectional survey distributed to public health personnel and healthcare providers between March 23 and April 23, 2020. They found that their sample of policies reflected organizational strategies of exemplar-based policy development and the use of objective criteria in triage decisions, either before or instead of clinical judgment, to support ethical distribution of resources.
Citation: Chelen JSC, White DB, Zaza S . US ventilator allocation and patient triage policies in anticipation of the COVID-19 surge. Health Secur 2021 Sep-Oct;19(5):459-67. doi: 10.1089/hs.2020.0166..
Keywords: COVID-19, Public Health, Emergency Preparedness, Policy
Ma AL, Loughland MED, Lapcharoensap W
California and Oregon NICU wildfire disaster preparedness tools.
In a follow-up to their previous study, the authors asked, "what tools/strategies do medical professionals deem as important and most helpful as they are preparing for wildfire disaster response?" They conducted surveys in 11 Oregon and Southwest Washington NICUs about their wildfire evacuation preparedness and interviewed two neonatologists about their wildfire disaster evacuation and preparation experiences. Their findings suggested that there is more work needed to fully prepare NICUs for wildfire disasters, and they hope that their work helps to educate and support future NICU disaster preparedness responses.
Citation: Ma AL, Loughland MED, Lapcharoensap W . California and Oregon NICU wildfire disaster preparedness tools. Children 2021 Jun;8(6). doi: 10.3390/children8060465..
Keywords: Emergency Preparedness, Newborns/Infants, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), Intensive Care Unit (ICU)
Barry CL, Anderson KE, Han H
Change over time in public support for social distancing, mask wearing, and contact tracing to combat the COVID-19 pandemic among US adults, April to November 2020.
This study examined changes over time in attitudes towards social distancing, mask wearing, and contact tracing to combat the COVID-19 pandemic among US adults, April to November 2020. Surveys of a nationally representative cohort of US adults were conducted in April, July, and November 2020. Support for social distancing dropped from 89% in April to 79% in July but remained stable in November at 78%. In July and November, more than 75% of respondents supported mask wearing and nearly as many supported contact tracing. Support differences were most pronounced by age, partisanship, and trust in science. Higher support for contact tracing was independently predicted by having a more fluid worldview.
Citation: Barry CL, Anderson KE, Han H . Change over time in public support for social distancing, mask wearing, and contact tracing to combat the COVID-19 pandemic among US adults, April to November 2020. Am J Public Health 2021 May;111(5):937-48. doi: 10.2105/ajph.2020.306148..
Keywords: COVID-19, Public Health, Emergency Preparedness, Infectious Diseases