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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 3 of 3 Research Studies Displayed
Clark AW, Durkin MJ, Olsen MA
Rural-urban differences in antibiotic prescribing for uncomplicated urinary tract infection.
This study examined rural-urban differences in temporal trends and risk of inappropriate antibiotic use by agent and duration among women with uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI). This observational cohort study identified US commercially insured women aged 18-44 coded for uncomplicated UTI and prescribed an antibiotic from the IBM MarketScan Commercial Database (2010-2015). Of the 670,450 women with uncomplicated UTIs, a large proportion received antibiotic prescriptions for inappropriate agents (46.7%) or durations (76.1%). Rural women were more likely to receive prescriptions with inappropriately long durations than urban women. There was a slight decline in patients who received inappropriate agents and durations from 2011 to 2015. Rural-urban differences varied over time by agent, geographic region, and provider specialty.
Citation: Clark AW, Durkin MJ, Olsen MA . Rural-urban differences in antibiotic prescribing for uncomplicated urinary tract infection. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2021 Dec;42(12):1437-44. doi: 10.1017/ice.2021.21..
Keywords: Antimicrobial Stewardship, Antibiotics, Medication, Urinary Tract Infection (UTI), Practice Patterns
Beeber AS, Kistler CE, Zimmerman S
Nurse decision-making for suspected urinary tract infections in nursing homes: potential targets to reduce antibiotic overuse.
This study’s goal was to determine what information is most important to registered nurses (RNs) decisions to call clinicians about suspected urinary tract infections (UTIs) in nursing home residents. An online survey was conducted with a convenience sample of 881 RNs recruited from a health care research panel. Clinical scenarios from 10 categories of resident characteristics were used: UTI risk, resident type, functional status, mental status, lower urinary tract status, body temperature, physical exam, urinalysis, antibiotic request, and goals of care. Participants were randomized into 2 deliberation conditions: self-paced (n=437) and forced deliberation (n=444). Painful or difficult urinary, obvious blood in urine and temperature at 101.5° had the highest odds of a RN calling a clinician by the forced-deliberation group. For the self-paced group, painful or difficult urination had the highest odds.
Citation: Beeber AS, Kistler CE, Zimmerman S . Nurse decision-making for suspected urinary tract infections in nursing homes: potential targets to reduce antibiotic overuse. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021 Jan;22(1):156-63. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2020.06.053..
Keywords: Urinary Tract Infection (UTI), Antibiotics, Antimicrobial Stewardship, Medication, Nursing Homes, Long-Term Care, Decision Making, Diagnostic Safety and Quality
Varda BK, Finkelstein JB, Wang HH
The association between continuous antibiotic prophylaxis and UTI from birth until initial postnatal imaging evaluation among newborns with antenatal hydronephrosis.
This study examined whether the routine use of continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP) before initial postnatal imaging is effective to prevent urinary tract infection (UTI) in infants with a history of antenatal urinary tract dilation (AUTD). A single-institution, retrospective cohort study of infants with a history of AUTD was conducted. A random sample of 500 infants was selected with six excluded for other congenital anomalies. Of the 494 remaining, 157 (32%) received CAP. There was no difference found in UTI incidence among those treated with CAP and those who were not.
Citation: Varda BK, Finkelstein JB, Wang HH . The association between continuous antibiotic prophylaxis and UTI from birth until initial postnatal imaging evaluation among newborns with antenatal hydronephrosis. J Pediatr Urol 2018 Dec;14(6):539.e1-39.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.jpurol.2018.04.022..
Keywords: Antibiotics, Antimicrobial Stewardship, Urinary Tract Infection (UTI), Newborns/Infants, Imaging, Medication, Prevention