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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 173 Research Studies Displayed
Lowry KP, Bissell MCS, Miglioretti DL
Breast biopsy recommendations and breast cancers diagnosed during the COVID-19 pandemic.
The authors sought to examine breast biopsy recommendations and breast cancers diagnosed before and during the COVID-19 pandemic by mode of detection and women's characteristics. Using data from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium, they found that there were substantially fewer breast biopsies with cancer diagnoses during the COVID-19 pandemic from March to September 2020 compared to the same period in 2019, with Asian and Hispanic women experiencing the largest declines followed by Black women.
Citation: Lowry KP, Bissell MCS, Miglioretti DL . Breast biopsy recommendations and breast cancers diagnosed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Radiology 2022 May;303(2):287-94. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2021211808..
Keywords: COVID-19, Cancer: Breast Cancer, Cancer, Diagnostic Safety and Quality
Kranz AM, Steiner ED, Mitchell JM
School-based health services in Virginia and the COVID-19 pandemic.
The purpose of this study was to examine how the COVID-19 pandemic may have impacted the provision of school health services and related student needs. In May 2021, all 1178 Virginia public elementary schools received a web-based survey regarding the impact of the pandemic on school-based health services, with 65% of schools responding (N=767). Schools reported providing fewer school-based health services during the pandemic than before, with dental screenings declining the most (51% before vs 15% after). The study also reported that mental health as a top concern for students increased from 15% before the pandemic to 27% during the pandemic. The study concluded that schools reported providing fewer health services to students during pandemic in the 2020-2021 school year and increased concern about students' mental health.
Citation: Kranz AM, Steiner ED, Mitchell JM . School-based health services in Virginia and the COVID-19 pandemic. J Sch Health 2022 May;92(5):436-44. doi: 10.1111/josh.13147..
Keywords: COVID-19, Children/Adolescents, Public Health, Healthcare Delivery, Community-Based Practice
AHRQ Author: Huppert J
Adolescents with vulvar ulcers: COVID-19 disease, COVID-19 vaccines, and the value of case reports.
The author indicates that there are too few cases reporting aphthosis after COVID disease or COVID-19 vaccination to infer a statistical association, but that case reports are a valuable source of rich details about conditions that are difficult to study with more rigorous designs and can be synthesized to help guide medical care. She recommends that it is time for a high-quality systematic review of vulvar aphthosis in order for clinicians to incorporate the existing evidence into decision-making and best care for patients.
Citation: Huppert J . Adolescents with vulvar ulcers: COVID-19 disease, COVID-19 vaccines, and the value of case reports. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2022 Apr;35(2):109-11. doi: 10.1016/j.jpag.2022.01.006..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, COVID-19, Vaccination, Research Methodologies
Berger AC, Simchoni N, Auerbach A
Implementation of clinical practice guidelines for hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in academic medical centers.
This study was a survey of members of the Hospital Medicine Reengineering Network to determine the rate at which US academic medical centers have adopted evidence-based practice guidelines for COVID-19. Of 83 hospitals contacted, 53 responded. Fifty-one sites issued internal COVID-19 management guidance. Guidance types included for infectious disease (98%), infection control (90%), hospital medicine (88%) and critical care (83%). Of the 51 sites with internal COVID-19 management guidance, recommendations were most commonly disseminated through email, institutional websites, and integration into electronic health records as COVID-19-specific order sets and note templates. Three themes emerged from the researcher’s analysis. First, translation from evidence to practice guidelines was remarkably complete for interventions supported by aligned national guidelines and high-quality studies. Second, institutions favored treatment over not treatment, particularly when guidelines diverged from each other. Lastly, academic medical centers demonstrated a willingness to innovate across a range of interventions.
Citation: Berger AC, Simchoni N, Auerbach A . Implementation of clinical practice guidelines for hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in academic medical centers. JAMA Netw Open 2022 Apr;5(4):e225657. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.5657..
Keywords: COVID-19, Guidelines, Inpatient Care
Huang J, Graetz I, Millman A
Primary care telemedicine during the COVID-19 pandemic: patient's choice of video versus telephone visit.
The goal of this study was to examine the association between patient characteristics and primary care telemedicine choice among integrated delivery system patients self-scheduling visits during the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings showed that patients of Black or Hispanic race/ethnicity, or living in low socioeconomic status or low internet access neighborhoods were less likely to schedule video visits. Also, patients 65 years or older, with prior video visit experience or mobile portal access, or visiting their own personal provider were more likely to schedule video visits. While video adoption was substantial in all patient groups examined, differences in telemedicine choice suggested the persistence of a digital divide.
Citation: Huang J, Graetz I, Millman A . Primary care telemedicine during the COVID-19 pandemic: patient's choice of video versus telephone visit. JAMIA Open 2022 Apr;5(1):ooac002. doi: 10.1093/jamiaopen/ooac002..
Keywords: COVID-19, Primary Care, Telehealth, Health Information Technology (HIT), Access to Care
Murray E, Roosevelt GE, Vogel JA
Screening for health-related social needs in the emergency department: adaptability and fidelity during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Researchers sought to evaluate a screening and referral program for health-related social needs (HRSN) in an emergency department. Using the Accountable Health Communities Screening Tool, they found that, during the COVID-19 pandemic, HRSN doubled, likely reflecting the economic impact of the pandemic.
Citation: Murray E, Roosevelt GE, Vogel JA . Screening for health-related social needs in the emergency department: adaptability and fidelity during the COVID-19 pandemic. Am J Emerg Med 2022 Apr;54:323.e1-23.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2021.09.071..
Keywords: COVID-19, Social Determinants of Health, Emergency Department, Screening, Public Health
Behr CL, Joynt Maddox KE, Meara E
Anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody distribution to high-risk Medicare beneficiaries, 2020-2021.
The authors assessed how the limited supply of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) therapy was allocated to patients at highest risk of severe disease. They found that, among non-hospitalized Medicare beneficiaries with a COVID-19 diagnosis between November 2020 and August 2021, only 7.2% received mAb therapy. In many cases, patients at the highest risk of severe disease were the least likely to receive mAb therapy, with extreme variation geographically. Their analysis did not account for patient vaccination status or observed disease severity, which could influence clinicians’ decisions.
Citation: Behr CL, Joynt Maddox KE, Meara E . Anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody distribution to high-risk Medicare beneficiaries, 2020-2021. JAMA 2022 Mar 8;327(10):980-83. doi: 10.1001/jama.2022.1243..
Keywords: COVID-19, Medicare, Medication
Bartsch SM, O'Shea KJ, Chin KL
Maintaining face mask use before and after achieving different COVID-19 vaccination coverage levels: a modelling study.
This study’s objective was to assess the value of maintaining face mask use indoors according to different COVID-19 vaccination coverage levels in the US. This computational simulation-model study used a Monte Carlo simulation model representing the US population and SARS CoV-2 spread. The investigation found that maintaining face mask use until and a short time after achieving various final vaccination coverage levels can not only be cost-effective, but even cost saving. In all scenarios, it was estimated cost-effective to maintain face mask use for about 2-10 weeks beyond the date of target vaccination coverage achievement.
Citation: Bartsch SM, O'Shea KJ, Chin KL . Maintaining face mask use before and after achieving different COVID-19 vaccination coverage levels: a modelling study. Lancet Public Health 2022 Mar 8;7(4):e356-e65. doi: 10.1016/s2468-2667(22)00040-8..
Keywords: COVID-19, Public Health
Woloshin S, Dewitt B, Krishnamurti T
Assessing how consumers interpret and act on results from at-home COVID-19 self-test kits: a randomized clinical trial.
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authorized SARS-CoV-2 rapid at-home self-test kits for individuals with and without symptoms. How appropriately users interpret and act on the results of at-home COVID-19 self-tests is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess how users of at-home COVID-19 self-test kits interpreted and acted on results when given instructions authorized by the FDA, instructions based on decision science principles, or no instructions.
Citation: Woloshin S, Dewitt B, Krishnamurti T . Assessing how consumers interpret and act on results from at-home COVID-19 self-test kits: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med 2022 Mar;182(3):332-41. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2021.8075..
Keywords: COVID-19, Diagnostic Safety and Quality
Riviello ED, Dechen T, O'Donoghue AL
Assessment of a crisis standards of care scoring system for resource prioritization and estimated excess mortality by race, ethnicity, and socially vulnerable area during a regional surge in COVID-19.
Researchers analyzed the association of a crisis standards of care (CSOC) scoring system with resource prioritization and estimated excess mortality by race, ethnicity, and residence in a socially vulnerable area during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using data from 6 hospitals in greater Boston, Massachusetts, they found that a CSOC priority score resulted in lower prioritization of Black patients to receive scarce resources. Also, a model using a random lottery resulted in more estimated excess deaths overall without improving equity by race.
Citation: Riviello ED, Dechen T, O'Donoghue AL . Assessment of a crisis standards of care scoring system for resource prioritization and estimated excess mortality by race, ethnicity, and socially vulnerable area during a regional surge in COVID-19. JAMA Netw Open 2022 Mar;5(3):e221744. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.1744..
Keywords: COVID-19, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Mortality, Public Health, Vulnerable Populations
Bergman ZR, Usher M, Olson A
Comparison of outcomes and process of care for patients treated at hospitals dedicated for COVID-19 care vs other hospitals.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the mortality rate and complications associated with treatment at the COVID-19-dedicated hospitals. Findings showed that, in this cohort study, COVID-19-dedicated hospitals in Minnesota had multiple benefits, including providing high-volume repetitive treatment and isolating patients with the infection. This experience suggests improved in-hospital mortality for patients treated at dedicated hospitals.
AHRQ-funded; HS026732; HS026379.
Citation: Bergman ZR, Usher M, Olson A . Comparison of outcomes and process of care for patients treated at hospitals dedicated for COVID-19 care vs other hospitals. JAMA Netw Open 2022 Mar;5(3):e220873. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.0873..
Keywords: COVID-19, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Evidence-Based Practice, Outcomes, Healthcare Delivery, Hospitals
Douin DJ, Krause M, Williams C
Corticosteroid administration and impaired glycemic control in mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients.
This study’s objective was to determine the association between corticosteroid administration and impaired glycemic control among COVID-19 patients requiring mechanical ventilation and/or veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. This multicenter retrospective cohort study was conducted between March 9 and May 17, 2020 at 12 US hospitals. The primary outcome measured was days spent with at least 1 episode of blood glucose either >180 mg/dL or <80 mg/dL within the first 28 days of admission. The authors included 292 mechanically ventilated patients. Sixty-six patients (22.6%) died within 28 days of ICU admission. Seventy-one patients (24.3%) received a cumulative dose of at least an equivalent of 320 mg methylprednisolone. After adjustment for gender, history of diabetes mellitus, chronic liver disease, sequential organ failure assessment score on intensive care unit day 1, and length of stay, administration of ≥320 mg methylprednisolone equivalent was associated with 4 additional days spent with glucose either <80 mg/dL or >180 mg/dL.
Citation: Douin DJ, Krause M, Williams C . Corticosteroid administration and impaired glycemic control in mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients. Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2022 Mar;26(1):32-40. doi: 10.1177/10892532211043313..
Keywords: COVID-19, Treatments, Medication
Kemme S, Yoeli D, Sundaram SS
Decreased access to pediatric liver transplantation during the COVID-19 pandemic.
The purpose of the study was to explore and understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on nationwide pediatric liver transplants. The researchers compared data for transplant waiting list additions, removals, and liver transplants during pre-COVID-19 (March-November 2016-2019), early COVID-19 (March-May 2020), and late COVID-19 (June-November 2020). The study results showed a 38% decrease in liver transplantations during early COVID-19, recovering to pre-pandemic rates during late COVID-19. White children had a 30% decrease in overall liver transplantation, while non-White children had a 44% decrease in overall liver transplantation. Additions to the waiting list decreased 25% during COVID-19, with Black transplant candidates the most affected, and children spent longer on the waiting list during early COVID-19 compared to pre-COVID-19 (140 vs. 96 days). The study concluded that the COVID-19 pandemic decreased access to pediatric liver transplants, especially during early COVID-19. The researchers discussed that although the rate of pediatric liver transplants has resumed to pre-COVID-19 levels, racial disparities must be addressed.
Citation: Kemme S, Yoeli D, Sundaram SS . Decreased access to pediatric liver transplantation during the COVID-19 pandemic. Pediatr Transplant 2022 Mar;26(2):e14162. doi: 10.1111/petr.14162..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, COVID-19, Transplantation, Access to Care, Disparities
Shao CC, McLeod MC, Gleason L
Effect of COVID-19 pandemic restructuring on surgical volume and outcomes of non-COVID patients undergoing surgery.
The authors sought to assess changes in surgical case mix and outcomes due to restructuring during the pandemic. Institutional ACS-NSQIP data was used to identify patients undergoing surgery at a single tertiary care institution in the Deep South. They found that surgeries during the COVID-19 pandemic were more often outpatient without differences in post-operative outcomes. They recommended additional analysis to determine the impact of duration of operative delay on surgical outcomes with restructuring focusing more on outpatient surgeries.
Citation: Shao CC, McLeod MC, Gleason L . Effect of COVID-19 pandemic restructuring on surgical volume and outcomes of non-COVID patients undergoing surgery. Am Surg 2022 Mar;88(3):489-97. doi: 10.1177/00031348211054528..
Keywords: COVID-19, Surgery, Public Health, Outcomes
Van Gerwen OT, Talluri R, Camino AF
Human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection testing preferences for young Black men who have sex with men in the Southeastern United States: implications for a post-COVID-19 era.
Study researchers used a discrete choice experiment to assess the preferences of Young Black Men Who Have Sex with Men (YBMSM) in the Southeastern U.S. regarding their preferences for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/ sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing locations, staffing, cost, and hours of operation. Between June 2018 and December 2019, 213 YBMSM between the ages of 16-35 years, located in Birmingham, Alabama and Jackson, Mississippi completed online surveys evaluating their preferences. Traditional, stationary testing locations were preferred by both groups over mobile testing vans. The most significant difference in preference was for local health departments in Alabama, and STI testing-only clinics in Mississippi. Both groups preferred clinician-performed testing over technician-performed testing or self-testing, with additional preferences for free testing and phone results notification (versus text). The most preferred combination among all participants was the $5 clinician-performed testing at the health department. The study concluded that YBMSM in the Southeastern United States prefer traditional testing locations staffed by experienced personnel. The study researchers advise that more research is needed to inform the best ways to approach HIV/STI testing services for YBMSM, especially in the post-COVID-19 era when delivery models are shifting toward health-focused strategies which are home-based and remote.
Citation: Van Gerwen OT, Talluri R, Camino AF . Human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection testing preferences for young Black men who have sex with men in the Southeastern United States: implications for a post-COVID-19 era. Sex Transm Dis 2022 Mar;49(3):208-15. doi: 10.1097/olq.0000000000001559..
Keywords: COVID-19, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Infectious Diseases, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Men's Health
Kissler K, Breman RB, Carlson N
Innovations in prospective perinatal research as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.
This paper provides a review of perinatal research adaptations which took place during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although in-person research activities ceased during the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and the resulting disease called COVID-19, the authors’ team of university scientists across the United States utilized adapted methods to allow prospective perinatal research to continue. Novel approaches included using new and underutilized techniques for distance research such as: online recruitment, enrollment, and consent; data collection via videoconferencing; self-collection of biological samples; and new applications of smart phones and wearable vital signs measurement. The researchers found that these methods may improve recruitment success and the quality of the experience for the participants, as well as provide improved access to historically vulnerable populations, such as low-income, rural, and racially diverse pregnant and postpartum individuals and communities. The researchers concluded that the implementation of these research strategies resulted in broader, more inclusive, and diverse perinatal research access, and many of the strategies will continue to be used and refined long after the pandemic.
Citation: Kissler K, Breman RB, Carlson N . Innovations in prospective perinatal research as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. J Midwifery Womens Health 2022 Mar;67(2):264-69. doi: 10.1111/jmwh.13329..
Keywords: COVID-19, Research Methodologies
Brajcich BC, Benson AB, Gantt G
Management of colorectal cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic: recommendations from a statewide multidisciplinary cancer collaborative.
J Surg Oncol 2022 Mar;125(4):560-63. doi: 10.1002/jso.26758.
Citation: Brajcich BC, Benson AB, Gantt G . Management of colorectal cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic: recommendations from a statewide multidisciplinary cancer collaborative. J Surg Oncol 2022 Mar;125(4):560-63. doi: 10.1002/jso.26758..
Keywords: COVID-19, Cancer: Colorectal Cancer, Cancer, Guidelines, Evidence-Based Practice, Healthcare Delivery
Auty SG, Griffith KN
Medicaid expansion and drug overdose mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States.
This study examined trends in overdose mortality nationally and by state Medicaid expansion status from 2013 to 2020. Using data from the CDC’s WONDER database, findings showed that the increase in drug or opioid overdose deaths experienced during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic was similar in states with and without Medicaid expansion.
Citation: Auty SG, Griffith KN . Medicaid expansion and drug overdose mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. Drug Alcohol Depend 2022 Mar 1;232:109340. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2022.109340..
Keywords: COVID-19, Medicaid, Opioids, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Mortality, Public Health
Choi K, Becerra-Culqui T, Bhakta B
Parent intentions to vaccinate children with autism spectrum disorder against COVID-19.
This study’s purpose was to investigate associations between parent vaccine confidence and intentions to have their child with autism vaccinated with the COVID-19 vaccine. A cross-sectional, web-based survey of 332 parents of children with autism spectrum disorder who were members of an integrated healthcare system in Southern California was conducted from May to July 2021. Approximately 35% of parents were going to vaccinate their child against COVID-19. Positive vaccine beliefs, healthcare provider trust, or parent vaccination status were associated with intention to vaccinate.
Citation: Choi K, Becerra-Culqui T, Bhakta B . Parent intentions to vaccinate children with autism spectrum disorder against COVID-19. J Pediatr Nurs 2022 Mar-Apr;63:108-10. doi: 10.1016/j.pedn.2021.11.019..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, COVID-19, Vaccination, Autism, Chronic Conditions
Hays RD, Skootsky SA
Patient experience with in-person and telehealth visits before and during the COVID-19 pandemic at a large integrated health system in the United States.
Researchers sought to compare patient experience by visit type and before and during the pandemic. Using CAHPS® data, they found that patient experience with telehealth visits was as positive as or more positive than that with traditional office-based visits. Doctor communication on telehealth visits was viewed as slightly more positive than that of in-office or telephone visits. Telehealth visits were also slightly more positive than in-office visits for care coordination, overall rating of the doctor, and willingness to recommend to family and friends. Office staff were viewed less positively on the telephone than telehealth or in-office visits. Further, patient experience was similar before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Citation: Hays RD, Skootsky SA . Patient experience with in-person and telehealth visits before and during the COVID-19 pandemic at a large integrated health system in the United States. J Gen Intern Med 2022 Mar;37(4):847-52. doi: 10.1007/s11606-021-07196-4..
Keywords: COVID-19, Telehealth, Health Information Technology (HIT), Patient Experience, Healthcare Delivery
Rikin S, Perez HR, Zhang C
Changes in outpatient opioid prescribing during the COVID-19 pandemic: an interrupted time series analysis.
Changes in health care delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic may have impacted opioid prescribing. This study evaluated the impact of restrictions on in-person care on opioid prescribing in the outpatient setting. The hypothesis was that after restrictions to in-person care were implemented, there would be a reduction in the number of chronic and non-chronic opioid prescriptions.
Citation: Rikin S, Perez HR, Zhang C . Changes in outpatient opioid prescribing during the COVID-19 pandemic: an interrupted time series analysis. J Prim Care Community Health 2022 Jan-Dec;13:21501319221076926. doi: 10.1177/21501319221076926..
Keywords: COVID-19, Opioids, Medication, Practice Patterns, Healthcare Delivery
Qin CX, Auerbach SR, Charnaya O
Antibody response to 2-dose SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients.
While many adult solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) have impaired antibody response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination, pediatric SOTRs’ response has not been assessed. In this article, the researchers reported the immunogenicity and safety of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination in pediatric SOTRs.
Citation: Qin CX, Auerbach SR, Charnaya O . Antibody response to 2-dose SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients. Am J Transplant 2022 Feb;22(2):669-72. doi: 10.1111/ajt.16841..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Vaccination, COVID-19, Transplantation
Wu AJ, Aris IM, Hivert MF
Association of changes in obesity prevalence with the COVID-19 pandemic in youth in Massachusetts.
Using the Massachusetts Department of Public Health’s disease surveillance system (MDPHnet), the authors examined obesity prevalence in 3 periods from 2018 to 2020 in a fixed cohort of children and adolescents. They found that, although childhood obesity prevalence was rising prior to COVID-19, the prevalence increased by a greater difference in Massachusetts youth during the COVID-19 pandemic. They observed greater increases in obesity prevalence in Black and Hispanic youth, particularly in boys aged 6 to 11 years.
Citation: Wu AJ, Aris IM, Hivert MF . Association of changes in obesity prevalence with the COVID-19 pandemic in youth in Massachusetts. JAMA Pediatr 2022 Feb;176(2):198-201. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.5095..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, COVID-19, Obesity
Li Y, Cheng Z, Cai X
State social distancing restrictions and nursing home outcomes.
This study examined how state orders for social distancing to curb COVID-19 morbidity and mortality affected nursing home patients and what potential negative health consequences they may have had. The authors examined state social distancing restrictions from June to August of 2020 and their associations with the weekly numbers of new COVID cases, new COVID deaths, and new non-COVID deaths in nursing homes across the US. They found that stronger state social distancing measures were associated with improved outcomes, reduced across-facility disparities in COVID outcomes, and somewhat increased non-COVID-19 death rates. The estimates for non-COVID-19 deaths were sensitive to alternative model specifications.
AHRQ-funded; HS026893; HS024923.
Citation: Li Y, Cheng Z, Cai X . State social distancing restrictions and nursing home outcomes. Sci Rep 2022 Jan 20;12(1):1058. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-05011-6..
Keywords: COVID-19, Nursing Homes, Prevention, Public Health
Levin Z, Chang J, Karaca-Mandic P
Characteristics of hydroxychloroquine dispensing in the United States, January to May 2020.
This research letter describes a comparison of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) prescription trends from January to May 2020. The authors identified HCQ dispensing from the OptumLabs Data Warehouse and identified 66,253 enrollees with 134,417 HCQ fills during the study period. Nearly 13,000 new fillers (67.2%) did not have a diagnostic indication of lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, malaria or Sjogren’s syndrome. Among previous fillers, 15.1% had no indication. The most common diagnosis was RA among indicated users. The rate of HCQ fills per 1,000 enrollees increased substantially in mid-March among both new and previous HCQ fillers. For prior fillers, rates increased due to an anticipated shortage of the drug due to people using it for COVID-19 prevention.
Citation: Levin Z, Chang J, Karaca-Mandic P . Characteristics of hydroxychloroquine dispensing in the United States, January to May 2020. J Gen Intern Med 2022 Jan;37(1):176-78. doi: 10.1007/s11606-021-07175-9..
Keywords: COVID-19, Medication, Practice Patterns