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Research Studies is a compilation of published research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers.
Results76 to 100 of 11623 Research Studies Displayed
Oke I, Lutz SM, Hunter DG
Use and costs of instrument-based vision screening for US children aged 12 to 36 months.
This research letter describes a cohort study that examined patterns and out-of-pocket costs of instrument-based vision screening among US children 12 to 36 months. The authors used 2018 MarketScan Commerical Claims and Encounters data as of January 1, 2018 and excluded those with fewer than 12 months of continuous insurance coverage, enrollment in capitated insurance plans, no preventive care encounters, or missing data on residents. The study included 246,077 children. Instrument-based vision screening was received by 19.5% (n = 48,101) of children during 2018. Median (IQR) practitioner payment for instrument-based vision screening claims was $13. Screening incurred out-of-pocket expenses for 7% of children; 30% of these children had expenses related to co-payment, 20.2% to coinsurance, and 50.7% to deductibles. Median (IQR) out-of-pocket expense was $11. Increased odds of vision screening were associated with older age, high-deductible plan enrollment, having more than 1 preventative visit, and receiving care within an area in the highest quartile of practitioner payment. This study was limited by use of commercial claims data, which excluded 45% of children with public or no coverage. Nationwide prevalence of vision screening therefore may differ for the general population.
Citation: Oke I, Lutz SM, Hunter DG . Use and costs of instrument-based vision screening for US children aged 12 to 36 months. JAMA Pediatr 2023 Jul; 177(7):728-30. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2023.0808..
Keywords: Newborns/Infants, Eye Disease and Health, Screening, Prevention, Healthcare Costs
Sun CJ, Doran KM, Sevelius JM
A qualitative examination of tobacco use and smoking cessation among gender minority adults.
Researchers conducted qualitative, semi-structured in-depth interviews to identify and examine factors that influence tobacco use and cessation for gender minority adults. Participants were recruited from the Portland, OR metropolitan area. The researchers then used a conceptual framework based on the Model of Gender Affirmation and Gender Minority Stress Model. Four main themes were generated: general and gender minority-specific stressors; social behavior influenced and sustained by community and interpersonal relationships; health concerns; and conducive life circumstances. Participants expressed a strong desire for gender minority-specific tobacco cessation programs. The researchers concluded that interventions are urgently needed for this population and should be tailored to address the unique factors that impact tobacco use and cessation among gender minority people to increase the possibility of success.
Citation: Sun CJ, Doran KM, Sevelius JM . A qualitative examination of tobacco use and smoking cessation among gender minority adults. Ann Behav Med 2023 Jun 30; 57(7):530-40. doi: 10.1093/abm/kaac072..
Keywords: Tobacco Use, Vulnerable Populations
Lin YJ, Ranusch A, Seagull FJ
Dynamic interplay between available resources and implementation climate across phases of implementation: a qualitative study of a VA national population health tool.
This study analyzed the factors that may determine successful implementation of an intervention by examining the co-occurrence patterns between available resources and implementation climate across different implementation phases. There have been very few studies that have investigated how the required resources change over the phases of implementation. The authors conducted a secondary analysis of interviews that were conducted with 20 anticoagulation professionals at 17 clinical sites in the Veterans Health Administration health system about their experiences with a population health dashboard for anticoagulant management. Key relationships between available resources and implementation climate were identified and summarized. Resources necessary to support the successful implementation of an intervention were found to not be static, Both quantity and types of resources shift based on the phases of the intervention. Increased resource availability does not guarantee the sustainment of intervention success. New technological interventions require resources in the form of technological support and social/emotional support to help users establish trust. Resources that foster and maintain collaboration between users and other stakeholders can help them stay motivated during sustainment.
Citation: Lin YJ, Ranusch A, Seagull FJ . Dynamic interplay between available resources and implementation climate across phases of implementation: a qualitative study of a VA national population health tool. Implement Sci Commun 2023 Jun 29; 4(1):74. doi: 10.1186/s43058-023-00460-0..
Keywords: Implementation, Health Information Technology (HIT)
O'Connor EA, Henninger ML, Perdue LA
Anxiety screening: evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.
This evidence summary was published in conjunction with the final recommendation statement for the US Preventive Services Task Force on benefits and harms of screening and treatment for anxiety disorders in adults. A literature review was conducted with 59 publications included, 40 were original studies and 19 were systematic reviews. Two screening studies found no benefit for screening for anxiety. Only the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) GAD-2 and GAD-7 screening instruments were evaluated by more than 1 study. Both screening instruments had adequate accuracy for detecting generalized anxiety disorder with a pooled sensitivity of 0.79 and specificity of 0.89. Evidence was limited for other instruments and other anxiety disorders. Evidence was insufficient on the benefits or harms of anxiety screening programs. However, there is a large body of evidence supporting the benefit of treatment for anxiety.
AHRQ-funded; 290201500011I; 75Q80120D00004.
Citation: O'Connor EA, Henninger ML, Perdue LA . Anxiety screening: evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA 2023 Jun 27; 329(24):2171-84. doi: 10.1001/jama.2023.6369..
Keywords: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), Anxiety, Behavioral Health, Screening, Evidence-Based Practice, Guidelines, Prevention
Ramanathan S, Evans CT, Hershow RC
Comparison of guideline concordant antibiotic prophylaxis in Veterans Affairs and non-Veterans Affairs dental settings among those with cardiac conditions or prosthetic joints.
The objective of this retrospective study was to compare prescribing of antibiotic prophylaxis in Veterans Affairs (VA) and non-VA settings. Subjects were veteran and non-veteran dental patients with cardiac conditions or prosthetic joints; most were males aged 55 years older. The results showed that VA settings had a higher prevalence of guideline concordant prescribing among those with prosthetic joints, and when assessing dosing errors. The authors recommended that future studies focus on the extent to which integrated electronic health records may be responsible for increased guideline concordant prescribing in the VA setting.
Citation: Ramanathan S, Evans CT, Hershow RC . Comparison of guideline concordant antibiotic prophylaxis in Veterans Affairs and non-Veterans Affairs dental settings among those with cardiac conditions or prosthetic joints. BMC Infect Dis 2023 Jun 23; 23(1):427. doi: 10.1186/s12879-023-08400-y..
Keywords: Dental and Oral Health, Antibiotics, Medication, Prevention, Cardiovascular Conditions, Practice Patterns
Paglino E, Lundberg, DJ, Zhou Z
Monthly excess mortality across counties in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic, March 2020 to February 2022.
Researchers estimated all-cause excess mortality for the US by county and month by using a Bayesian hierarchical model focused on data from 2015-2019. Overall, excess mortality decreased in large metropolitan counties but increased in nonmetropolitan counties. Nonmetropolitan Southern counties had the highest cumulative relative excess mortality by July 2021. The researchers concluded that their results highlight the need for investments in rural health as the pandemic's rural impact increases.
Citation: Paglino E, Lundberg, DJ, Zhou Z . Monthly excess mortality across counties in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic, March 2020 to February 2022. Sci Adv 2023 Jun 23; 9(25):eadf9742. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.adf9742..
Keywords: COVID-19, Mortality
O'Connor EA, Perdue LA, Coppola EL
Depression and suicide risk screening: updated evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.
The objectives of this article were to review the benefits and harms of depression and suicide risk screening and treatment and the accuracy of instruments to detect these conditions in primary care patients. Evidence gathered from the literature search supported screening for depression in primary care settings, including during pregnancy and postpartum. The authors noted, however, that there were numerous important gaps in the evidence for suicide risk screening.
AHRQ-funded; 290201500011I; 75Q80120D00004.
Citation: O'Connor EA, Perdue LA, Coppola EL . Depression and suicide risk screening: updated evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA 2023 Jun 20; 329(23):2068-85. doi: 10.1001/jama.2023.7787..
Keywords: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), Screening, Depression, Behavioral Health, Evidence-Based Practice, Guidelines, Risk
Dahabreh IJ, Robins JM, Haneuse SJA
Sensitivity analysis using bias functions for studies extending inferences from a randomized trial to a target population.
This paper describes how simple methods for sensitivity analysis using bias functions can extend inferences from a randomized trial to a target population. The authors show how the methods can be applied to non-nested trial designs, where the trial data are combined with a separately obtained sample of nonrandomized individuals, as well as to nested trial designs, where the trial is embedded within a cohort sampled from the target population.
Citation: Dahabreh IJ, Robins JM, Haneuse SJA . Sensitivity analysis using bias functions for studies extending inferences from a randomized trial to a target population. Stat Med 2023 Jun 15; 42(13):2029-43. doi: 10.1002/sim.9550..
Keywords: Research Methodologies
King C, Beetham T, Smith N
Treatments Used Among Adolescent Residential Addiction Treatment Facilities in the US, 2022.
This study is a survey of US adolescent residential addiction treatment facilities to assess treatments used for adolescents younger than 18 years seeking treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD). The authors posed as an aunt or uncle of a 16-year-old with a recent non-fatal fentanyl overdose to make calls to treatment facilities more plausible if they did not have all requested information about an adolescent. Four investigators called facilities included in the SAMHSA Treatment Indicator in random order and asked to speak with someone about residential treatment. They asked specific questions about buprenorphine use and open-ended questions about other available treatments. They identified 354 facilities, reached 327, and confirmed that 160 provided residential treatment to patients younger than 18 years. Of the 160 facilities identified 39 (24.4%) offered buprenorphine, including through partnerships with outside clinicians. Rates varied by US region (18% in the West to 40% in the Northeast). Among the 121 facilities that did not offer buprenorphine or were unsure, 57 indicated that adolescents who were prescribed buprenorphine by their own clinician could continue receiving it, at least temporarily, although some facilities indicated that would discontinue it before discharged, and 22.3% required adolescents to not be receiving it at admission. Of 160 facilities, 140 had someone available who could prescribe medications for psychiatric comorbidities. Overall, 124 facilities had naloxone, 24 did not, and 11 were unsure. Over half of the facilities included family members in adolescent treatment. Leading approaches for adolescent treatment included mutual help frameworks (eg, 12-step program, n = 59), cognitive behavior therapy (n = 52), community reinforcement/adolescent community approach (n = 44), art therapy (n = 40), and equine therapy (n = 40).
Citation: King C, Beetham T, Smith N . Treatments Used Among Adolescent Residential Addiction Treatment Facilities in the US, 2022. JAMA 2023 Jun 13; 329(22):1983-85. doi: 10.1001/jama.2023.6266..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health
Mooney AC, Jackson KE, Hamad R
Experiences of distress and gaps in government safety net supports among parents of young children during the COVID-19 pandemic: a qualitative study.
This study examined the experiences and challenges of families with low incomes caring for young children during the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews from August 2020 to January 2021 with 34 parents of young children in California that were then analyzed using thematic analysis. They identified three key themes related to parents' experiences during the pandemic: (1) positive experiences with government support programs, (2) challenging experiences with government support programs, and (3) distress resulting from insufficient support for childcare disruptions. Program expansions helped alleviate food insecurity, and those attending community colleges reported accessing a range of supports through supportive counselors. However, there were many reported gaps in childcare and distance learning support, pre-existing housing instability, and parenting stressors.
Citation: Mooney AC, Jackson KE, Hamad R . Experiences of distress and gaps in government safety net supports among parents of young children during the COVID-19 pandemic: a qualitative study. BMC Public Health 2023 Jun 7; 23(1):1099. doi: 10.1186/s12889-023-16037-4..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, COVID-19, Public Health
Morrow EL, Mayberry LS, Duff MC
The growing gap: a study of sleep, encoding, and consolidation of new words in chronic traumatic brain injury.
Evidence from neuroscience emphasizes sleep as a crucial support for longitudinal memory and word learning. In numerous lab-based word learning experiments, participants encode and then retrieve new words within the same session. Single session designs are not adequate for capturing the full word learning process. Single session studies also inhibit exploration of the role of behavioral and lifestyle factors such as sleep in supporting longitudinal word learning. Adults with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI), who experience challenges in the memory systems that support word learning and report related sleep disturbance, provide a unique opportunity to explore linkages between memory, sleep, and word learning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate longitudinal word learning and the influence of sleep on short- and long-term word recall in 50 adults with chronic moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 50 demographically matched neurotypical peers. Participants took part in the study over a two week period in their homes in an attempt to capture the process of real-world word learning and to measure sleep within normal living conditions. The study found that participants with TBI demonstrated a deficit in word learning that started at encoding, continued across time, and increased over the course of the week. The gap in performance between groups was greater at the 1-week post-test than the immediate post-test. Participants with and without TBI recalled more words when they slept after learning.
Citation: Morrow EL, Mayberry LS, Duff MC . The growing gap: a study of sleep, encoding, and consolidation of new words in chronic traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychologia 2023 Jun 6; 184:108518. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2023.108518..
Keywords: Brain Injury, Chronic Conditions, Sleep Problems, Trauma
Weinstein R, Brohinsky J, Meltzer A
AHRQ Author: Weinstein R
Establishing and maintaining trust: how the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force uses strategic communications to build confidence in and disseminate its evidence-based recommendations.
This article examined ways in which strategic communications support for the United States Preventive Services Task Force helped to fulfill its mission to improve the health of people nationwide through evidence-based preventive services recommendations. Communications challenges specific to the USPSTF are described, and two case examples of strategic communications approaches provided.
Citation: Weinstein R, Brohinsky J, Meltzer A . Establishing and maintaining trust: how the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force uses strategic communications to build confidence in and disseminate its evidence-based recommendations. J Health Commun 2023 Jun 3; 28(6):344-48. doi: 10.1080/10810730.2023.2208532..
Keywords: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), Communication, Evidence-Based Practice, Guidelines, Prevention
Jain A, Brooks JR, Alford CC
AHRQ Author: Jain A, Alford CC, Chang CS, Mueller NM, Umscheid CA, Bierman AS
Awareness of racial and ethnic bias and potential solutions to address bias with use of health care algorithms.
This AHRQ-authored study examined the increased use of health care algorithms in health decision tools, and whether including a patient's race or ethnicity among their inputs can lead clinicians and decision-makers to make choices that vary by race and potentially affect inequities. This qualitative survey included 42 organization representatives (e.g., clinical professional societies, universities, government agencies, payers, and health technology organizations) and individuals. The respondents identified 18 algorithms currently in use with the potential for bias. Seven qualitative themes with 31 subthemes were identified including: (1) algorithms are in widespread use and have significant repercussions, (2) bias can result from algorithms whether or not they explicitly include race, (3) clinicians and patients are often unaware of the use of algorithms and potential for bias, (4) race is a social construct used as a proxy for clinical variables, (5) there is a lack of standardization in how race and social determinants of health are collected and defined, (6) bias can be introduced at all stages of algorithm development, and (7) algorithms should be discussed as part of shared decision-making between the patient and clinician.
Citation: Jain A, Brooks JR, Alford CC . Awareness of racial and ethnic bias and potential solutions to address bias with use of health care algorithms. JAMA Health Forum 2023 Jun 2; 4(6):e231197. doi: 10.1001/jamahealthforum.2023.1197..
Keywords: Racial and Ethnic Minorities, Disparities, Healthcare Delivery, Evidence-Based Practice
Rivard SJ, Vitous CA, Bamdad MC
"I wish there had been resources": a photo-elicitation study of rectal cancer survivorship care needs.
Prior research reveals that healthcare providers are not skilled at identifying the most relevant rectal cancer survivorship issues. As a result, survivorship care is inadequate with most rectal cancer survivors reporting at least one unmet posttherapy need. The purpose of this photo-elicitation study was to explore rectal cancer survivors’ lived experiences using participant-submitted photographs and minimally structured qualitative interviews. Twenty rectal cancer survivors from a single center submitted photographs illustrative of their life after rectal cancer therapy. The study found that rectal cancer survivors’ recommendations to improve their survivorship care fell into three primary themes: 1) informational needs; 2) continued multidisciplinary follow up care; and 3) suggestions for support services. The study concluded that rectal cancer survivors want information that is more detailed and individualized, access to multidisciplinary follow-up care over time, and resources to alleviate the challenges of daily life.
AHRQ-funded; HS026772; HS000053.
Citation: Rivard SJ, Vitous CA, Bamdad MC . "I wish there had been resources": a photo-elicitation study of rectal cancer survivorship care needs. Ann Surg Oncol 2023 Jun; 30(6):3530-37. doi: 10.1245/s10434-022-13042-6..
Keywords: Cancer: Colorectal Cancer, Cancer, Quality of Life, Patient Experience
Ackerman SL, Wing H, Acves B
“We were trying to do quality versus quantity”: challenges and opportunities at the intersection of standardized and personalized social care in community health centers.
The purpose of this study was to explore activities to incorporate social risk programs into community health centers (CHCs) providing primary care services in Oregon. CHCs took part in either one or both of two large programs with the goal of incorporating standardized social risk screening and referral processes. The researchers conducted 42 semi-structured interviews with clinicians, managers and staff at 12 clinics affiliated with five CHCs to understand implementation procedures and challenges to those procedures. Thematic analysis utilized the Normalization Process Theory (NPT) to discover the dynamic, interactional nature of activities to integrate a complex sociotechnical intervention. The study found that standardized social care was expected to correspond well with institutional commitments and priorities. However, challenges maintaining support among staff was encountered, affected by competing priorities, staff turnover, and uncertainties about roles and responsibilities. The new tools were frequently altered or abandoned to retain the advantages of existing social care practices. Across clinics, the association between standardized procedures and existing social care activities, had a key role in patterns of adoption, non-adoption and adaptation, with standardized tools frequently experienced as undermining more relational, team-based social care.
Citation: Ackerman SL, Wing H, Acves B . “We were trying to do quality versus quantity”: challenges and opportunities at the intersection of standardized and personalized social care in community health centers. SSM Qual Res Health 2023 Jun; 3:100267. doi: 10.1016/j.ssmqr.2023.100267..
Keywords: Community-Based Practice, Social Determinants of Health, Primary Care
Stonko DP, Weller JH, Gonzalez Salazar AJ
A pilot machine learning study using trauma admission data to identify risk for high length of stay.
The purpose of this study was to design a tool that used only data available at time of admission for trauma to predict prolonged hospital length of stay (LOS). Data was collected from the trauma registry at an urban level-one adult trauma center. Single layer and deep artificial neural networks were trained to identify patients in the top quartile of LOS and optimized under the receiver operator characteristic curve. The results indicated that machine learning can predict which trauma patients will have prolonged LOS with physiologic and demographic data available at the time of admission. The authors concluded these patients may benefit from additional disposition planning resources at the time of admission.
AHRQ-funded; HS026640; HS024547; HS027793.
Citation: Stonko DP, Weller JH, Gonzalez Salazar AJ . A pilot machine learning study using trauma admission data to identify risk for high length of stay. Surg Innov 2023 Jun; 30(3):356-65. doi: 10.1177/15533506221139965..
Keywords: Trauma, Hospitalization, Health Information Technology (HIT)
Isbell LM, Chimowitz H, Huff NR
A qualitative study of emergency physicians' and nurses' experiences caring for patients with psychiatric conditions and/or substance use disorders.
This study’s aim was to develop a comprehensive data-driven model of the complex challenges and unique dynamics associated with caring for patients with psychiatric conditions and/or substance use disorders (SUDs) in the emergency department (ED), as well as the effect on patient care quality. The authors conducted a preplanned topical analysis of grounded theory data obtained from semistructured interviews with 86 ED physicians and nurses from 8 hospitals in the Northeastern USA. Participants described in detail their experiences and challenges in caring for patients with psychiatric conditions and/or SUDs. The authors identified themes inductively using constant comparative analysis and developed a grounded model of physicians' and nurses' perceptions of challenges, biases, and effects on patient care. Challenges identified were emotional, diagnostic, and logistical. These challenges magnified existing health care system issues and social structures, which fuel and reinforce negative attitudes, expectations, and biases. This creates a cyclical process whereby challenges and biases associated with patients with psychiatric conditions and/or SUDs can reciprocally threaten patient care quality.
Citation: Isbell LM, Chimowitz H, Huff NR . A qualitative study of emergency physicians' and nurses' experiences caring for patients with psychiatric conditions and/or substance use disorders. Ann Emerg Med 2023 Jun; 81(6):715-27. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2022.10.014..
Keywords: Behavioral Health, Substance Abuse, Emergency Department, Provider: Nurse, Provider: Physician
Stiles-Shields C, Archer J, Zhang J
A scoping review of associations between cannabis use and anxiety in adolescents and young adults.
This review sought to examine the association between anxiety and cannabis in adolescents and young adults. Forty-seven studies were identified that examined the relationship between anxiety and cannabis use via a database search; 23 studies found a positive association that greater anxiety was associated with greater cannabis use and 7 found a negative association. The remainder found no clear association. The authors concluded that further research is needed to understand the relationship between anxiety and cannabis use.
Citation: Stiles-Shields C, Archer J, Zhang J . A scoping review of associations between cannabis use and anxiety in adolescents and young adults. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 2023 Jun; 54(3):639-58. doi: 10.1007/s10578-021-01280-w..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Anxiety, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health
Lee SJC, Lee J, Zhu H
Assessing barriers and facilitators to lung cancer screening: initial findings from a patient navigation intervention.
This study’s objective was to examine the challenges to providing lung cancer screening using low-dose computed tomography for patients, particularly minority, under-, and uninsured populations. The authors conducted a pragmatic randomized controlled trial of telephone-based navigation for lung cancer screening in an integrated, urban safety-net health care system. They used bilingual navigators (Spanish and English) to make systematic contact with patients, recording standardized call characteristics in a study-specific database. A total of 225 patients (mean age 63 years, 46% female, 70% racial/ethnic minority) were assigned navigators, with a total of 559 barriers to screening identified during 806 telephone calls. The most common barrier types were personal (46%), provider (30%), and practical (17%). System (6%) and psychosocial (1%) barriers were described by English-speaking patients, but not by Spanish-speaking patients. Provider-related barriers decreased by 80% over the course of the lung cancer screening process.
Citation: Lee SJC, Lee J, Zhu H . Assessing barriers and facilitators to lung cancer screening: initial findings from a patient navigation intervention. Popul Health Manag 2023 Jun; 26(3):177-84. doi: 10.1089/pop.2023.0053..
Keywords: Cancer: Lung Cancer, Cancer, Screening, Prevention, Imaging
Acolin J, Fishman P
Beyond the biomedical, towards the agentic: a paradigm shift for population health science.
Life expectancy in the United States is decreasing. Health disparities are widening. Growing evidence for and integration of social and structural determinants into theory and practice has not yet improved outcomes. The COVID-19 pandemic reinforced the fact. The purpose of this paper was to contend that the biomedical model and its core scientific paradigm of causal determinism, is unable to meet population health needs. The researchers offer that this paper advances the field of medicine by transcending criticism to recognize the need for a paradigm shift. The authors apply the experience of the COVID-19 pandemic to exemplify the practical applications of their framework.
Citation: Acolin J, Fishman P . Beyond the biomedical, towards the agentic: a paradigm shift for population health science. Soc Sci Med 2023 Jun; 326:115950. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2023.115950..
Keywords: COVID-19, Public Health
MacEwan SR, Gaughan AA, Beal EW
Concerns and frustrations about the public reporting of device-related healthcare-associated infections: perspectives of hospital leaders and staff.
The purpose of this study was to explore the specific concerns of hospital leaders and staff regarding the identification and public reporting of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). Between 2017 and 2019 the researchers conducted interviews with 471 participants including hospitals leaders and hospital staff across 18 United States hospitals. The study found that interviewees discussed concerns about public reporting of HAI data, including a lack of trust in the data and unintended consequences of its public reporting, as well as particular frustrations with the identification and accountability for publicly-reported HAIs.
Citation: MacEwan SR, Gaughan AA, Beal EW . Concerns and frustrations about the public reporting of device-related healthcare-associated infections: perspectives of hospital leaders and staff. Am J Infect Control 2023 Jun; 51(6):633-37. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2022.08.003..
Keywords: Medical Devices, Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs), Hospitals, Provider: Health Personnel
Jenkins JL, Hsu EB, Zhang A
Current evidence for infection prevention and control interventions in emergency medical services: a scoping review.
This study’s aim was to summarize current evidence from the United States on the effectiveness of practices and interventions for preventing, recognizing, and controlling occupationally acquired infectious diseases in Emergency Medical Service (EMS) clinicians. A database search was conducted for literature published January 2006 through March 15, 2022 to search for studies in the United States that involved EMS clinicians and firefighters, reported on one or more workplace practices or interventions that prevented or controlled infectious diseases, and included outcome measures. Eleven observational studies reported on infection prevention and control (IPC) practices providing evidence that hand hygiene, standard precautions, mandatory vaccine policies, and on-site vaccine clinics are effective. Less frequent handwashing and less frequent hand hygiene after glove use were positively correlated with nasal colonization of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Lack of personal protective equipment (PPE) or PPE breach were correlated with higher severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seropositivity and virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seropositivity. Workers were more likely to be vaccinated against influenza if their employer offered the vaccine. Vaccination rates for H1N1 influenza increased with the use of active, targeted education modules.
Citation: Jenkins JL, Hsu EB, Zhang A . Current evidence for infection prevention and control interventions in emergency medical services: a scoping review. Prehosp Disaster Med 2023 Jun; 38(3):371-77. doi: 10.1017/s1049023x23000389..
Keywords: COVID-19, Emergency Department, Evidence-Based Practice, Prevention, Public Health, Infectious Diseases
Reale C, Salwei ME, Militello LG
Decision-making during high-risk events: a .systematic literature review.
Researchers conducted a systematic literature review to identify empiric research papers that examined how trained professionals made naturalistic decisions under pressure. Using structured qualitative analysis methods, they extracted key themes: decision-making strategy, time pressure, stress, uncertainty, and errors. The studies explored different aspects of decision-making across multiple domains. Analytical strategies were also prominent. The researchers concluded that improved understanding of these decisional factors can inform evidence-based enhancements in training, technology, and process design.
AHRQ-funded; HS026158; HS026395; HS029042.
Citation: Reale C, Salwei ME, Militello LG . Decision-making during high-risk events: a .systematic literature review. Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making 2023 Jun; 17(2):188-212. doi: 10.1177/15553434221147415..
Keywords: Decision Making
Johnson CL, Colley A, Pierce L
Disparities in advance care planning rates persist among emergency general surgery patients: current state and recommendations for improvement.
A sudden shift in health condition and the intensification of chronic conditions often necessitate the consideration of emergency general surgery (EGS). While goal-oriented care discussions can enhance goal-concordant care and mitigate feelings of depression and anxiety in patients and caregivers, such conversations, along with standardized documentation, are seldom conducted for EGS patients. The researchers conducted a retrospective cohort study employing data from electronic health records of patients admitted to the EGS service in a high-level academic center to ascertain the frequency of significant advance care planning (ACP) documentation (discussions and legal ACP forms) during EGS hospitalization. Multivariable regression was used to identify patient, clinician, and procedural elements contributing to the absence of ACP. The study found that out of the 681 patients admitted to the EGS service in 2019, only 20.1% had ACP documentation in the electronic health record at any stage during their hospital stay. Two-thirds (65.8%) of the entire cohort underwent surgery during their admission, but none of them had an ACP conversation documented with the surgical team before the operation. Patients with ACP documentation were likely to be insured by Medicare and had a higher incidence of comorbid conditions.
Citation: Johnson CL, Colley A, Pierce L . Disparities in advance care planning rates persist among emergency general surgery patients: current state and recommendations for improvement. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2023 Jun; 94(6):863-69. doi: 10.1097/ta.0000000000003909..
Keywords: Disparities, Surgery, Emergency Department, Chronic Conditions
Wang SX, Marcaccio CL, Patel PB
Distal embolic protection use during transfemoral carotid artery stenting is associated with improved in-hospital outcomes.
Researchers sought to assess in-hospital outcomes in patients who had undergone transfemoral carotid artery stenting (tfCAS) with and without embolic protection using a distal filter. Patients undergoing tfCAS were identified in the Vascular Quality Initiative and those who received proximal embolic balloon protection were excluded. Outcomes of interest were stroke, death, composite stroke/death, myocardial infarction, transient ischemic attack, and hyperperfusion syndrome. Results indicated that tfCAS performed without attempted distal embolic protection was associated with higher risk of in-hospital stroke and death; tfCAS after a failed attempt at filter placement had equivalent stroke/death to patients with no filter attempted, but higher risk of stroke/death compared with those with successfully placed filters. The researchers concluded that these findings support current Society for Vascular Surgery guidelines and, if a filter cannot be safely placed, alternative approaches to carotid revascularization should be considered.
Citation: Wang SX, Marcaccio CL, Patel PB . Distal embolic protection use during transfemoral carotid artery stenting is associated with improved in-hospital outcomes. J Vasc Surg 2023 Jun; 77(6):1710-19.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2023.01.210..
Keywords: Cardiovascular Conditions, Outcomes, Stroke