- Voice of the customer: focus groups with staff and patients.
- Process mapping.
- Spaghetti mapping to show pathways of staff and patients through different processes.
- Current and future-state mapping.
- Critical patient clinical pathways.
- Quality Function Deployment.*
- Department-specific process improvements: Kaizen events/Lean projects, Six Sigma projects, Workouts, and Just-Do-Its.
*A systematic method to incorporate customer wants into process design to improve efficiency early in the design phase.