Table 1. Characteristics of Case-Finding Instruments Used to Detect Depression in Adults in Primary Care Settings
Screening for Depression in Adults: Summary of the Evidence
|Instrument||Items, n2||Time Frame of Questions||Score Range||Usual Cut-Point 3||Literacy Level 4||Administration Time, min|
|Beck Depression Inventory||21||Today||0-63||Mild, 10; moderate, 20; severe, 30||Easy||2-5|
|Center for Epidemiologic Study Depression Screen||20||Past week||0-60||16||Easy||2-5|
|General Health Questionnaire||28||Past few weeks||0-28||4||Easy||5-10|
|Medical Outcomes Study Depression Screen||8||Past week||0-1||0.06||Average||< 2|
|Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders||2||Past month||0-2||1||Average||< 2|
|Symptom Driven Diagnostic System-Primary Care||5||Past month||0-4||2||Easy||< 2|
|Zung Self-Assessment Depression Scale||20||Recently||25-100||Mild, 50; moderate, 60; severe, 70||Easy||2-5|
1 Adapted from reference 10.
2 Item numbers for the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders and the Symptom Driven Diagnostic System-Primary Care refer to depression questions only. Several instruments now have shortened versions as well.
3 The cut-point is the number at or above which the test is considered positive.
4 "Easy" is a third- to fifth-grade reading level, and "average" is a sixth- to ninth-grade reading level, according to the fog formula.
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