84. Treatment Recommendations: Counseling (Continued)

Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence: 2008 Update

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Variables associated with higher or lower abstinence rates

Variables associated with higher abstinence rates
Variable Examples
High motivation

Ready to change

Moderate to high self-efficacy

Supportive social network

Tobacco user reports a strong motivation to quit.

Tobacco user is ready to quit within a 1-month period.

Tobacco user is confident in his or her ability to quit.

A smoke-free workplace and home; friends who do not smoke in the quitter's presence.

Variables associated with lower abstinence rates
Variable Examples
High nicotine dependence

Psychiatric comorbidity and substance use

High stress level

Exposure to other smokers

Tobacco user smokes heavily (≥20 cigarettes/day), and/or has first cigarette of the day within 30 minutes after waking in the morning.

Tobacco user has currently elevated depressive symptoms, active alcohol abuse, or schizophrenia. Stressful life circumstances and/or recent or anticipated major life changes (e.g., divorce, job change).

Other smokers in the household.

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Page last reviewed October 2014
Page originally created September 2012
Internet Citation: 84. Treatment Recommendations: Counseling (Continued). Content last reviewed October 2014. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.ahrq.gov/professionals/clinicians-providers/guidelines-recommendations/tobacco/clinicians/presentations/2008update-full/slide84.html