Standard 12: Professional Competencies and Outcome Expectations
Guideline 12.1: Graduates must possess the basic knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values to practice pharmacy independently at the time of graduation. In this regard, the college or school must ensure that graduates are competent, at a minimum, to:
- Provide patient-centered care, through the ability to:
- Design, implement, monitor, evaluate, and adjust pharmacy care plans that are patient-specific; address health literacy, cultural diversity, and behavioral psychosocial issues; and are evidence-based.
Standard 14: Curricular Core—Pharmacy Practice Experiences
Guideline 14.5: Colleges and schools may choose to include structured simulation as part of their overall introductory pharmacy practice experiences to meet their introductory pharmacy practice experiences program goals and objectives. For the purpose of satisfying introductory pharmacy practice experience expectations, simulation may include use of... standardized patients, standardized colleagues, role play, and computer-based simulations.
Guideline 14.8: Goals and outcomes for each pharmacy practice experience must be mapped to activities listed in Appendix C to ensure that students' experience will cover, at a minimum, all the listed activities. [see Appendix C for details]
Appendix B—Additional Information on the Science Foundation for the Curriculum
Social/Behavioral/Administrative Pharmacy Sciences
Health Care Delivery Systems
- Incidence of and problems associated with drug overuse, underuse, and misuse in the U.S. health care system.
- Management of transformational change.
- Creating/implementing shared mission and vision.
- Management principles (planning, organizing, directing, and controlling resources) applied to various pharmacy practice settings and patient outcomes.
- Principles of planning, organizing, directing, and controlling pharmacy resources.
- Pharmacy Law and Regulatory Affairs
- Pharmacist's role in reducing liability by reducing drug-related misadventure.
- Effective verbal and written interpersonal communication.
- Health literacy.
- Communicating with diverse patients, families, pharmacists, and other health professionals in a variety of settings, both individually and as a member of a team.
- Interviewing techniques.
- Active listening and empathy.
- Assertiveness and problem-solving techniques.
- Cultural influences on communication of health information.
- Group presentation skills.
- Strategies for handling difficult situations.
- Principles of behavior modification.
- Communicating research and clinical findings to interprofessional and interdisciplinary audiences.
- Causes of medication errors/systems approaches.
- Strategies for reducing errors.
- Pharmacy leadership in medication safety.
- Current national patient safety goals as they relate to medication use.
- Organizations devoted to assurance and advancement of quality health care (e.g., Joint Commission).
- Quality and improvement strategies, such as failure mode and effects analysis, root cause analysis, and lean principles.
- Use of data in continuous quality improvement initiatives
Appendix C—Additional Guidance on Pharmacy Practice Experiences
Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experiences (IPPE)
... colleges and schools are encouraged to identify or develop introductory pharmacy practice experiences that consistently expose students to and allow participation in activities such as:
- Assessing patient health literacy and compliance.
- Communicating with patients.
Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPE)
Most of the time assigned for students in advanced pharmacy practice experiences should involve direct patient care:
- Providing pharmacist-delivered patient care to a diverse patient population.
- Providing patient education to a diverse patient population.
- Identifying and reporting medication errors and adverse reactions.
- Educating the public (and health care professionals) regarding medical conditions, wellness, dietary supplements, durable medical equipment, and medical and drug devices.
- Participating in discussions and assignments regarding compliance with accreditation, legal, regulatory/legislative, and safety requirements.